Digital Publishing: How Publishers Can Monetize Content On The Web
By Crissy Campbell
ABSTRACT: This paper seeks to illustrate how publishers can take their existing knowledge, expertise and content, and use online tools that are readily available to monetize their content online.
By looking at two case studies – Boxcar Marketing and its online marketing training program and Capulet Communications and its ebook, both which are projects that monetize the companies’ content – the paper explores tactics and best practices for building an online business strategy around content monetization. More specifically, the paper describes the details of feasible online business strategies.
This paper is meant as a how-to, to show how publishers can take advantage of the web to create sustainable online business models based on monetizing content online. The paper provides a workable business case that sorts out the details of online publishing strategies for others to use and build upon.
I would like to thank John Maxwell and Rowland Lorimer for their guidance and encouragement throughout the writing of this project report. I would also like to thank Jo-Anne Ray for her assistance and Darren Barefoot for taking the time to answer my questions about Capulet Communications. I would especially like to thank Monique Trottier for sharing her knowledge and giving me a terrific internship and employment opportunity with Boxcar Marketing. Her help and enthusiasm made this report possible.
I would like to thank my family, friends and fellow classmates for all of their support. And finally, a special thank you to Bob for always being there.
2: The New Business Environment
2.1 The New Market
2.2 Pricing Models
2.2.1 Direct Sales
2.3 The New Users
2.4 Marketing To the New Users
2.4.1 Get Attention
2.4.2 Earn Trust
2.4.3 Secure Permission
3: Digital Publishing
3.1 Big Publishers Versus Small Publishers
3.2 Steps Small Publishers Can Take To Monetize Content Online
3.2.1 Define Business and Marketing Objectives
3.2.2 Define Audience
3.2.3 Format Content
3.2.4 Develop Search Engine Optimization Strategy
3.2.5 Create Marketing and Outreach Plan
3.3 Measurement Strategy
5: Case Study: Boxcar Marketing Pro
5.1 Introduction to Boxcar Marketing
5.3 The Business Plan
5.3.2 Marketing Plan
5.4 Content Generation and Packaging
5.5 Delivery Platform
5.6 Marketing and Outreach Plan
5.6.1 Leveraging Existing Platforms: Boxcar Blog and Underwire
5.6.2 Social Media
5.6.3 Blogger Outreach
5.6.4 Leveraging Partnerships
5.6.5 Advertising and Direct Mail
5.7 Financials and Sales Plan
5.7.1 Costing Structure
5.7.3 Recouping Costs
5.8 Measuring Success
Figure 1: Engagement Ladder
Figure 2: Boxcar Marketing Pro Content
Figure 3: Competitor’s Pricing
Figure 4: Boxcar Marketing Pro Costs
Figure 5: Sales Target
Figure 6: Conversion Rates
Figure 7: ROI Funnel
Throughout the first decade of the new millennium the internet has been embraced by institutions, businesses and members of the public and this has eased public access to information – far beyond what was conceivable before the internet. The immediate accessibility of any content uploaded to the web as well as the democratization of online publishing tools, has turned internet users from recipients of information into recipients and participants in the formation of content. In other words, we have all become publishers. As Clay Shirky points out,
We’re not just readers anymore, or listeners or viewers. We’re not customers and we’re certainly not consumers. We’re users. We don’t consume content, we use it, and mostly we use it to support our conversations with one another, because we’re media outlets now too.
As media outlets, internet users are flooding the web with personal blogs, twitter updates, product reviews, and other forms of user-generated content. With these changes to the public’s relationship to content, culture has become overloaded by the vast amount of information available.
This revolutionary change from relative inaccessibility and unavailability to information abundance is a major challenge to book publishers – one that cannot be solved by simply adding a social media position on staff. Rather, it requires publishers to restructure the way they do business.
The web is an opportunity for publishers. With cheap distribution on a much larger scale, the ability to reach highly targeted markets, and the ability to get precise metrics on markets’ behaviours online, publishers should be rushing to the web. But so far they have been hesitant to overthrow the existing business models that they have been comfortable working within for years. While publishers do not need to completely throw out their old way of doing business, they do need to build on and restructure their old models in order to succeed within the new media order.
Publishers are, essentially, experts at making content and information available to the public. They have knowledge, expertise and existing archives of content that are still valuable today and they need to find ways to bring their knowledge, expertise and content over onto the web. One way is to repackage this existing content to sell online and thereby monetize their content on the web.
Online everyone can now publish content and information, including teachers with offline content that can be sold on the web, business professionals with expertise that can be sold online, and traditional nonfiction book publishers with content from print books that can be repackaged for the web. In addition, traditional book publishers have expertise in editing, content packaging, and marketing, all which are valuable online. This paper seeks to illustrate how publishers can take their existing knowledge, expertise and content, and use online tools that are readily available to monetize their content online.
This paper shows how publishers – and anyone with nonfiction content – can monetize their content by building on existing online models. At my internship with Boxcar Marketing, a small online marketing company, I worked to develop an online marketing training program, called Boxcar Marketing Pro, to monetize the company’s content. By looking at how Boxcar Marketing Pro developed as well as at how Capulet Communications, also a small online marketing company, monetized their content by publishing an ebook, I explore tactics and best practices for building an online business strategy around content monetization. More specifically, I describe the details of feasible online business strategies.
This paper is meant as a how-to, to show how publishers can take advantage of the web to create sustainable online business models based on monetizing content online. The paper provides a workable business case that sorts out the details of online publishing strategies for others to use and build upon.
Part Two looks at the current business environment and the problems and opportunities that exist within it. Part Three explores the steps publishers can take to monetize content online. Part Four looks at Capulet Communications’ project and the results that it achieved. Part Five explores Boxcar Marketing’s project, Boxcar Marketing Pro, and outline the steps Boxcar took to monetize the company’s content. The paper concludes by examining what publishers can learn from these projects and how they can use Boxcar Marketing’s case study going forward.
Back in 2004, Chris Anderson, editor-in-chief of Wired magazine, coined the term for the web’s new market, the Long Tail. The theory of the Long Tail is based on the idea that, with the web, the cost of reaching consumers has fallen dramatically, giving rise to more choice in the market which significantly changes consumption patterns. With more choice, Anderson says,
Our culture and economy are increasingly shifting away from a focus on a relatively small number of hits (mainstream products and markets) at the head of the demand curve, and moving toward a huge number of niches in the tail.
According to Anderson, in Long Tail markets, there is much more potential to make money from previously unprofitable niche products and services, and these niche products can “collectively…comprise a market rivalling the hits.”
In the online marketplace, the cost of reaching consumers has dropped because of three factors: the democratization of tools of production, democratized distribution and the ability to connect supply with demand. Personal computers, the internet and relatively cheap technology and software have democratized the tools of production. Anyone with a computer can set up a blog and become published online. Software like GarageBand and iMovie (which are preinstalled on any Mac computer) give users the ability to record and produce music and films. Production costs are no longer a major barrier to entry. The internet has also democratized distribution, making everyone a distributor with no geographical limits and no costs of physical shelf space and warehousing. The third factor – connecting supply and demand – is the most important because, as Anderson states, it “helps people find what they want in this new superabundance of variety [and is where]…the potential of the Long Tail marketplace is truly unleashed.”
Before the web, consumers found out about goods through mass media (TV, radio, newspapers and magazines) and then passed along this information to family and friends via phone or face-to-face conversations. The information from mass media was usually from advertisers or columnists serving their own interests and most truly valuable information was from friends and family who had bought the product or experienced it themselves and could give their opinion about it. In these circumstances, hyper-targeted products and information are scarce and search costs – things that get in the way of finding what consumers want, like wasted time, hassle, and mistaken purchases – are high.
These dynamics completely change with the web. In this interconnected and hyperlinked environment, consumers now find products with Google’s organic search and peer recommendations and rankings. When consumers are looking for products or information they “Google it” and, almost immediately, have a list of search results regarding the product or information they were looking for from all over the world. From here, they can delve further, clicking on their search results to read peer reviews and get unmediated opinions from peers who have bought the product. Anderson calls these filters. With quality filters consumers move from consuming mass marketed goods to niche goods that are tailored to personal tastes and areas of interest. As Seth Godin states, “the internet was supposed to homogenize us but what it has done is create silos of interest.”
Long Tail markets “…are not pre-filtered by the requirements of distribution bottlenecks…” so consumers need to do the filtering themselves. And once there are quality filters in place the “odds of finding something just right for you are actually greater in the Tail.” Anderson argues that when search costs are low, not only is there less hassle, but also consumers have a better chance of finding what they like. And in an era without the constraints of physical shelf space and other bottlenecks of distribution, “narrowly targeted goods and services can be as economically attractive as mainstream fare.”
The Long Tail is a huge opportunity for publishers. Rather than being costly, online publishing is actually a viable, smarter solution than traditional print publishing. Online content has lower storage and distribution costs as well as lower marketing costs. Products online, if optimized for search, are more likely to be found by those looking for that type of content. When negotiating the online space, taking advantage of Long Tail market dynamics and publishing niche products is where publishers will succeed.
In a world where information is no longer scarce and consumers have moved from passive readers and listeners to users and creators of content, how do publishers charge for content? Markets rely on supply and demand and the abundance of supply, in this case content, drives the cost of goods down, even to zero.
Many digital goods cost nothing. News, music and software can all be found for free, or almost free, on the web. Google offers most of its services, like Google Search and Gmail, for free. Copies of digital files – like music, movies and books – are freely available as well.
As a publisher trying to build a business model online, how does one compete with free? Kevin Kelly, editor of Wired magazine, argues that because the internet is “a copy machine…you need to sell things which cannot be copied.” These are qualities that are better than free – for example, trust, immediacy, accessibility, personalization, and findability. Chris Anderson has a similar argument, noting, “…as commodities become cheaper, value moves elsewhere.” And “the way to compete with Free is to move past the abundance to find the adjacent scarcity.” While content is abundant online, quality and expertise is scarce. This is where publishers have the upper hand. They are experts in their subject fields and, in the case of traditional publishers, are also experts at editing, packaging and selling content that is far superior than most of the free content online.
Anderson argues that there are now two economies, the attention economy and the reputation economy. The web is about getting attention – website traffic – and then building a reputation from that traffic – page rank and links.
But how do publishers turn this attention and reputation into revenue?
Google offers Google Search and Gmail for free because these types services are also available elsewhere and having people use its services builds its reputation. But Google charges for its ad program, AdWords, because it has value that no one else can offer. AdWords is built on a brokerage model, replacing the ad agency’s role as the middleman between advertisers and consumers. By positioning itself this way, Google has built a reputation around its brand and has become the world’s most popular search engine. This means that it can earn revenue from its ad programs that have a reach that no one else can match. And something must be working – in 2009 Google earned $23.7 billion in revenue. As Seth Godin states,
People will pay for content if it is so unique they can’t get it anywhere else, so fast they benefit from getting it before anyone else, or so related to their tribe that paying for it brings them closer to other people.
What do these new online pricing models look like? The following is a list of different ecommerce models that are in place on the web, from familiar models such as direct sales and subscription, to Freemium, a model based around Chris Anderson’s ideas about free.
Direct sales is the most obvious and traditional ecommerce model. This includes companies like Amazon, Ikea and Walmart who sell their products online directly to buyers, similar to the conventional catalogue model. Direct sales can also include content and data sales where companies and organizations, such as Healthcare Canada, sell research data and reports to consumers.
Affiliate pricing models are based on partnerships in which people that like a business or product elect to be an affiliate for it. This model is based on a referral system where the affiliate markets the business on their website and to their community, often with a widget or button that links to a shopping cart, to help “benefit…the community, and to be compensated for that promotion.” For example, because I like books, I could elect to be an Amazon Affiliate through Amazon’s Associates program. I would then put the Amazon Affiliate widget on my blog that advertises books that I like. If any of my blog readers click on the widget and buy the book, I get compensated. This helps Amazon because I am promoting and recommending books to people that trust me (my blog fans), this helps the community because they are finding out about good books, and it benefits me because I earn revenue for this promotion.
Subscription models are based on charging a flat fee for access to a large volume of exclusive content. For this model to work, companies need to offer content that no one else has, that isn’t available for free somewhere else or that is more convenient to access with the subscription. For example, The Chicago Manual of Style is actually easier to use online, rather than in print, because there is a search feature that makes it quicker and easier to look something up. The content also needs to be dynamic so that users have a need to return and appreciate the duration of the subscription. Many subscription websites offer free content so that new visitors can sample what is offered on the website. These sites then market their ‘premium’ content as only available to subscribers or members. Examples of subscription models include Netflix, MarketingProfs, Mequoda, scholarly journals, and O’Reilly’s Safari Books Online program. These sites require registration and payment for full access and offer valuable content that users will pay for because the benefits outweigh the costs.
Freemium models are about leveraging free content in order to charge for more valuable content where “…a few paying customers subsidize many unpaying ones.” Basically, marketers use the free content to get attention – “Free is a relatively cheap way to get attention” – and then offer a premium version that a small group of users will pay for, covering the costs of the free content for everyone else. Examples of Freemium models include Flickr, LinkedIn and MarketingProfs. Flickr and LinkedIn both offer basic free accounts to members but they also have paid ‘pro’ accounts that allow members to do more things – upload more photos at a time, for example. MarketingProfs offers some of its basic marketing information and content for free, but charges for its more advanced content and offers a ‘pro’ membership to those who want access to its extensive content archives. Anderson argues,
…[This model works because] It can accommodate the varying psychologies of a range of consumers, from those who have more time than money to those who have more money than time…Free plus Paid can span the full psychology of consumerism.
Freemium models make publishers nervous, but it is one that they should explore because it an interesting business model that, when done well, works both to market the company and to earn revenue for the business.
These new pricing models need to work within the needs of the new consumers – the users. These new users affect how businesses market and sell to their customers.
The generation born between 1982 and 2000 is referred to as the Digital Millennials. They are the most digitally connected generation in history and are, as Kelly Mooney and Nita Rollins state, “…redefining…the rules of engagement for brands.” Growing up online has empowered this generation, influencing their behaviours and values and it is largely with the Digital Millennials’ influence that the new consumers have emerged.
The new users are characterized by hyper-connectedness, empowerment and self-expression – they want to share and expect others to as well. As the Cluetrain Manifesto says, markets have become conversations, which means that users are talking amongst themselves and expect marketers to talk to them in the same way. All of this is enabling powerful new forms of social organization and knowledge exchange. Social media tools like Facebook, WordPress, wikis and product review forms have made it much easier for users to express themselves and connect with one another. As a result, users are more informed and more organized. If a brand is attempting to sell a faulty product, the market will publicize this – on their blogs, on their Twitter feeds and with other tools.
These new users value authenticity and transparency and rely on friends’ word-of-mouth reviews and recommendations to tell them what to consume. As Monique Trottier says,
We trust our friends. Not commercials. Commercials tell us what is available to buy. Our friends tell us whether we want to buy it or not.
One of the most important aspects of these new users is the growing level at which they are participating in communities online. In December 2009, global consumers spent more than five and a half hours on social networking sites that month, an 82% increase from the same time the year before. Clay Shirky believes that the rise in participation in online communities is because communities and groups are inherent to the internet. The impact that these online communities are having on society’s ability to communicate cannot be overstated. As Shirky argues, “we’re living through the largest increase in human expressive capability in history.” For example, as of February 2010, Twitter reported that people were tweeting 50 million tweets a day – an average of 600 tweets per second.
People have always been able to form groups. The difference with the web is that it gives people new tools that extend this ability, allowing individuals to create larger, more effective groups with less effort. The amount of relief money raised for Haiti earlier this year was a direct result of the ability for groups to quickly get together online and work to spread the word, asking for donations. According to Mashable.com, a social media news blog, and the American Red Cross, two days after the earthquake in Haiti the American Red Cross had raised $5 million through their online text message campaign. The amount of money raised was unprecedented and would never have reached the amount that it did without the web and its inherent ability to bring people together.
Seth Godin refers to these new groups that users are forming as Tribes. According to Godin, tribes are groups of people that form around strong common interests. They are based on shared ideas and values and, due to the global reach of the internet, even those on the fringes can now find and connect with a tribe. Godin claims that marketing to new users is about helping tribes connect and find each other. In addition, Godin points out that the tribes users form need guidance, so marketing is also about positioning oneself as a leader within these tribes.
The idea of leading tribes makes perfect sense for book publishers because, as Richard Nash pointed out at BookNet Canada’s Technology Forum this year, books are cultural objects that serve to build community. Using Oprah as an example, Nash argues that, contrary to the popular notion that she saved books, Oprah actually needed books to build her audience. Readers read in order to feel connected to the writer and to other readers and Oprah provided a space for readers to connect. So, essentially, publishers are in the “writer-reader connection business” and need to leverage this by building connections with their books. Nash argues that “content isn’t king; culture is,” and culture is the reason that people read, not content. In other words, communities and connecting are inherent to books.
Namaste Publishing, a small Vancouver spirituality publisher, is an excellent example of a publisher leading its tribe. Namaste publishes innovative books on self-help, spirituality and alternative health. These books contain teachings that resonate with readers and, because of this, Namaste has a strong group of loyal fans. These fans want to connect with other readers as well as with Namaste’s writers, so Namaste wanted to provide a space for engagement amongst the group. To do so, Namaste hired Boxcar Marketing to transform the company from a traditional publisher to a leader of a spiritual community.
To become a leader, both Namaste’s online presence and traditional business model needed a major redevelopment. Through a website redesign headed by Boxcar Marketing, Namaste integrated various social web tools and transformed the website from a disconnected collection of sites and blogs into a social platform for the community. Now, visitors to the site can sign up for an account, post spiritual statuses (similar to Facebook status’ but with a focus on one’s spiritual state) and connect with others through forums and other spiritual spaces. In addition, Boxcar Marketing worked to establish a digital publishing business model for the company. The model is based loosely on Mequoda’s Media Pyramid strategy where a business leverages free content to attract email and blog subscribers to build permission, and repurposes content to create many different products in order “to pull customers up the pyramid to maximize profit.” Namastehas a number of blogs that bring in readers, including the Namaste Publishing blog written by the publisher Constance Kellough; Bizah’s blog written by a fictional “student of truth”; and author blogs. The company then builds on these blogs to create paid online courses, such as The Journey to Higher Consciousness, and events, such as Namaste Radio. This audience wanted to form a tribe and Namaste took the opportunity to lead and facilitate these connections and create a business model around it.
To become a leader, one must get the tribes’ attention, earn their trust, and secure their permission.
To start, publishers need to get attention by identifying the compelling or remarkable aspects of their product and tell a story that people will want to share. They need to create something worth talking about, tell the people who want to hear it, and those people will spread the word for them. While finding the core element of one’s product has always been important, marketers now need to position this in terms of new users’ behaviours. That is, marketers need get attention by encouraging user empowerment and self-expression.
Monique Trottier points out that what publishers are ultimately trying to do with the compelling aspects of their product is encourage word of mouth because “online word of mouth is persistent.” Online, everything is logged and archived by search engines so that nothing ever goes away, which means that online marketing efforts have a lasting effect. Trottier continues on to say that, for marketers, the key is to encourage word of mouth by “…giving people the tools to pass it on. To share. To do the word of mouth marketing for you.”
A good example of a product that tells a remarkable story is TOMS Shoes, an online shoe retailer based in California. When consumers buy shoes from TOMS, they are not only buying a pair of shoes for themselves, they are also buying a pair shoes for someone in the developing world: “With every pair you purchase, TOMS will give a pair of new shoes to a child in need. One for One.” This is an incredibly compelling story that is easy to tell – it is not complicated – and that consumers want to tell about their purchase – their shoes represent a kind act on their part.
In addition, TOMS Shoes enables the story to spread by giving consumers a way to share. On the TOMS shoes website, visitors are encouraged to tell the TOMS story (with links to email, Facebook, Twitter and other social networks), share the TOMS documentary (where visitors can request a copy of the film and get instructions of how to screen it to a group) and upload their TOMS pictures (where visitors can add photos of themselves wearing the shoes and become a visible part of the community). By positioning the brand as a movement that consumers can get involved in, TOMS is succeeding in attracting attention to its product and the brand overall.
In terms of finding the story or compelling aspects within products based on content and ideas, the key is to pinpoint what users are buying. For example, high fashion magazines are not selling clothing; they are selling a lifestyle based on that clothing. So the story that fashion magazines are telling is a particular lifestyle – which is specific to each high fashion magazine. And this lifestyle story is what empowers users and encourages them to spread the word.
When everyone is linked, trust is important, as Mitch Joel states,
In a world where we’re all connected, one opinion quickly turns into everyone’s opinion. How you build trust in your brand, your business, and yourself is going to be an important part of how your business is going to adapt and evolve.
If publishers want people to spread their story to their family and friends, embed their video on their site, or paste their widget on their blog, they need to be trusted. Andrew Girdwood, head of strategy at bigmouthmedia, states, “Trust has now become the biggest challenge for marketers, and one which many are eager to address.”
Trust requires publishers to be authentic in conversations with their communities. This means publishers need to be personable online and treat the social media space as a “cocktail party” – instead of just talking about themselves, they should encourage conservations by introducing others to each other, asking questions, and be genuinely interested in what others have to say. Above all, when earning trust, transparency is key. Mooney and Rollins sum this up nicely,
The vast majority of online consumers simply want to make informed decisions and to do so, ironically, they go online to seek largely subjective perspectives from complete strangers. This seems like a contradiction: isn’t objectivity consumers’ Holy Grail? No, transparency is.
Transparency requires that publishers don’t filter out negative comments about their brand. Smart companies embrace the conflicts that make communities thrive, and most companies’ concerns are unnecessary. Mitch Joel states that
According to Brett Hurt, founder and CEO of Bazaarvoice, Bazaarvoice has served over 10 billion peer reviews to date, and the majority of them are 4.5 out of five stars. Even more surprising, a negative review converts more effectively into a sale than a positive review.
Consumers who read a negative review trust that site because it is honest and consumers are more likely to make a purchase on a site that they trust.
Mitch Joel argues, “Attention does not equal trust and Traffic doesn’t mean you’re building community.” Although a brand may be getting attention, it could be for the wrong reasons. The online attention that BP has received about the Gulf of Mexico oil spill is a perfect example of attention and traffic not equalling trust. BP has received a ton of attention for the falsity of its online PR. Instead of spending time and effort to regain the public’s trust after the oil spill, BP bought sponsored links so that it would be in Google’s top results for the search term “oil spill”. This manufactured effort to control what information searchers come across only provided fuel for the firestorm that has been brewing online – for example, as of July 2010 there is a fake BP Twitter account that mocks BP’s PR efforts, and a “Boycott BP” Facebook page with over half a million users behind it. Once online communities discover falsity the critical response can be detrimental for the brand.
Earning trust leads to securing permission – permission to tell users about the next story, to send them an event invitation on Facebook, or to send them a monthly newsletter. Seth Godin argues,
The future of marketing is based on permission. It’s based on sending messages to people who want to get them, who choose to get them, who would miss you if you didn’t send them.
The key is that once a publisher has someone’s permission, that person is much more valuable than a whole group of people who have not given their consent. For example, response emails – emails sent to people in response to requests for information or to orders being placed – “…will frequently generate more than 50% open rates.” This means that at least half of the people that receive these emails open them – a huge percentage compared to regular email newsletters where 25% open rates are average. This is because users are more receptive to marketing when they recognize a name and expect to hear from the marketer. This works in publishers’ favour, too, because they know that they are sending information to an interested audience.
Publishers can earn permission by becoming a resource. People appreciate useful tips and information and will pay attention to those giving it out. Publishers can also earn permission by supporting users’ online behaviours. Mooney and Rollins say that the three online behaviours that marketers should be encouraging are creating, sharing, and influencing. Essentially, publishers want to create a space to encourage dialogue and conversations around their story. Namaste Publishing, for example, has earned permission through its various spirituality blogs by positioning the blogs as both a place for self-help and alternative health advice as well as a place to discuss, and have conservations around, spirituality.
All of the above marketing tactics – get attention, earn trust and secure permission – is a result of having to work within a new purchase funnel. Old consumers would move within the purchase funnel from awareness to interest to purchase. They would see a commercial on TV, something in the commercial would make them want what was being advertised, and then they would go to a store and buy it. But, as Mooney and Rollins argue, new users take the “scenic route,” moving from awareness and interest – which usually happens online through their friends and tribes’ recommendations – to having conversations, making connections, joining groups, and comparing reviews, until, eventually, they arrive at the purchasing stage. And new users do not stop here. Next, they move to the post-purchasing stage where they submit their opinions and reviews online for the next round of buyers to use to make their buying decisions. Mooney and Rollins argue that marketers must “…allocate more resources for strengthening the peer connections and conversations along the way [to purchase]” because these interactions are how users make buying decisions. Marketing is now about supporting, and leading, this longer, more engaged route.
Any online business strategy needs to work within the new market realities and how users are engaging online – both with brands and with each other. This means that publishers should focus their efforts at the niche level and appeal to users by supporting and leading tribes through the new purchase funnel. Publishers need to find the compelling aspects of their product that users will want to share, earn trust by being authentic in conversations with communities, and secure permission to continue engaging with these communities in the future. Markets have changed significantly and marketers’ tactics need to change with them if they want to succeed online.
This section outlined the new online market realities and how publishers need to work within them. The effects of the Long Tail and the over-abundance of content have demanded new online business models, while the new users and how they interact online require new marketing tactics. Building on and leveraging this new market landscape, the next section outlines the steps that small publishers can take to monetize content online.
A digital publishing project requires a different workflow process than traditional publishers are accustomed to. Fortunately for smaller companies, changes to workflow are often much easier in smaller organizations than in larger companies.
In this era of media fragmentation and change, small organizations may have the upper hand – and this is no less true for publishers. Anyone familiar with the traditional publishing industry knows that there are vast differences between the way big publishing houses are run – with disparate, specialized roles for each employee – and the way small publishing houses are run – with employees doing everything from acquisitions to sales. This difference in organization affects how publishers are able to respond to change. In a big publishing house, any change to workflow processes is very complicated and moving over into digital publishing requires figuring out how to manage production, authors, contracts and staff and any decision about formats, digital rights management or distribution is extremely complicated – so much so that it actually impedes big publishers from implementing change.
Small publishers have the upper hand when it comes to adapting. They can experiment with new business models, monitor their progress and quickly try something else if the new model does not succeed. In “The Collapse of Complex Business Models,” Shirky argues that we need to move away from complexity and towards simplicity. He builds his argument by looking at the success of YouTube. In the past, large TV networks relied on complex productions and had a monopoly because they were the only ones who could afford such complexity. But Youtube has created “a world where complexity is neither an absolute requirement nor an automatic advantage.”  As Shirky states,
…When the ecosystem stops rewarding complexity, it is the people who figure out how to work simply in the present, rather than the people who mastered the complexities of the past, who get to say what happens in the future.
Because small organizations have more adaptable workflow processes than larger companies, small publishers have an opportunity to start experimenting with simple business models, using simple tools and simple work flow processes before the big publishing houses have turned themselves around.
While publishers are often told that they need to start publishing digitally, it involves specific steps that are very different from traditional publishing and, for many, the process is unclear. The subsequent section outlines the steps that publishers can follow to monetize their existing content on the web.
Publishers need to start by identifying their business objectives. These are the overall business goals for the project. While a mission or purpose outlines what a publisher wants to do, business objectives are measurable and help to prioritize business tasks and strategies. Common business goals are: sell product, create demand (for a product, service or event), create awareness (about a product, story, issue or brand) and get permission (to market to someone in the future).
Next, publishers need to build on their business objectives and the company’s overall identity, and define the marketing goals. Common goals include: promote engagement or awareness (about a story, issue, product or brand), promote a certain community or lifestyle, be a friend, or be an expert. The marketing objectives are how the company will position itself in order to reach the business goals. In other words, while business goals help to define tasks, marketing objectives define how a company will approach these tasks.
At this stage, publishers should further develop their strategy with a 7-Sentence Marketing Plan. The 7-Sentence Marketing Plan was developed by the authors of Guerrilla Marketing, Jay Conrad Levinsoon and Michael W. McLaughlin, and is only seven sentences because it forces one to focus. A 7-Sentence Marketing Plan answers the following questions:
Sentence 1: What is the purpose of your marketing?
Sentence 2: Who is your target market?
Sentence 3: What is your niche?
Sentence 4: What are the benefits and competitive advantage?
Sentence 5: What is your business identity?
Sentence 6: What tactics, strategies and weapons will you use to carry out your marketing?
Sentence 7: How much money will you allocate to marketing?
Once this is completed, publishers will have a concise, yet thorough, strategy document to use as a platform to build the project on. While the 7-Sentence Marketing plan is not the only method for defining a strategy, it is the approach preferred at Boxcar Marketing because it is quick and effective.
When monetizing content on the web, publishers need to start by outlining their business and marketing goals and writing a 7-Sentence Marketing plan in order to narrow the scope of the project. Once these initial steps are completed, publishers should define their audience.
The next step in monetizing content on the web is defining the target audience and developing audience personas in order to focus the project. The development of personas includes defining basic audience demographics – age, sex, location, and profession – and then building on these to define the audiences’ psychographics – values, attitudes and interests. When defining their audience, publishers should also have a basic understanding of how audiences behave online. The figure below is called the “Engagement Ladder” from industry analyst firm Forrester and it depicts typical web behaviours. As the ladder shows, most users on the web are “Spectators” – they read blogs, watch videos, sign up for email newsletters and join Facebook pages, but they never actively comment or engage with brands online.
For publishers, it is important to consider where on the ladder their target audience fits because this determines their engagement strategy. How a publisher engages with Spectators is much different than how a publisher engages with Creators, for example.
From here, publishers can take their audience definition – both demographics and psychographics – and narrow the audience down further by developing personas. Personas are character sketches of individual audience members that define who the content is for. They are an important part of the process because, as Monique Trottier says, “Online communications are about one-to-one communications,” and personas allow one to start thinking of the audience in a more personal, tangible way. As an advocate of using personas for online design, Christina Wodtke says
Instead of a vague design target of ‘users’ (who are capable of anything), you have a specific, targeted person with things that he needs and wants, as well as things that he doesn’t need and can’t use. Suddenly, prioritizing features becomes an easier job.
By developing personas one moves away from thinking about the project team wants and towards what the persona wants. While Wodtke advocates using personas in website design, they are equally applicable to business strategy development.
To create personas, publishers need to start with a discovery document that helps to define who the broader audience is. A discovery document involves researching who will buy the publishers’ content, and should include:
- Primary and secondary audiences
- Technical know-how of target users
- Age range, gender distribution and other demographics
- Psychographics like morals, values and cultural background
- Social patterns including how they relate to family and friends in the context of the product
- Competitor’s products of interest to users
- Non-competing products of interest to users
- Needs and common complaints
Building on the discovery document with its broad audience outline, the next step is narrowing the specifics of the audience down by developing the personas. Ideally, a project will have both primary personas – common user types that are important to the business success of the project – and secondary personas – user types that are very different from primary users but whose needs still need to be addressed for the success of the project. This helps to ensure that all user needs are outlined. A persona should include: user’s name; demographics and psychographics; professional and personal background; internet or technical profile (i.e. where in the engagement ladder do they sit? How comfortable are they online and what activities do they perform on the web? This is important for determining how the audience will interact with the brand online); favourite websites; and goals with I need / I want statements. Developing detailed personas will all of these elements help publishers to visualize their audience members, understand their needs and prepares publishers to address these needs as the project progresses.
Defining the audience, writing a discovery document and creating personas are crucial steps when monetizing content on the web, because they help publishers understand who their project is for, what their needs are and how publishers should position their project. Once this is completed, publishers can start formatting their content.
The next step in monetizing content online is deciding on a format for the content. While the content already exists, it needs to be specifically packaged for the audience that was defined in the persona stage – an audience that was not necessarily in mind when the content and information was originally created. When deciding on a format, the following are things that publishers should consider (note: think about the personas when going through this exercise):
- How will the material be consumed? Will it be read on-line or downloaded for off-line use?
- How much interaction will users want to have with the content? Is just text ok, or will users benefit from images and diagrams?
- To what extent is search necessary to the use of the material?
- To what extent is highlighting, annotating, note taking and excerpting critical to the use of the content?
- To what extent is metadata necessary to find and use the content?
- What countries does the company have the rights to sell the files in?
Once this exercise is completed, publishers need to determine how the content will be packaged – will it be most effective as a video, podcast, whitepaper, chapter or webinar? The format should suit the content as well as the personas’ needs and goals. Publishers also have to consider their budget and the up-front costs of the format they choose. Whereas a whitepaper is fairly affordable – approximately five hours to create – a video can be expensive due to the editing time that is required, starting at approximately $2000 per video.
An important step in the digital publishing process it determining the format for content and how it will be packaged – there are many more options online than with traditional text and audiences have different expectations. Once the format and packaging has been determined, the next step when monetizing content online is developing a search engine optimization strategy.
The next step in a content monetization project is developing a search engine optimization (SEO) strategy so that the project and its content can be found. Consumers find what they want online by searching for it, so publishers need to strategize how they will appear in search results. As Monique Trottier says, “Search optimization is the number one thing you need to focus on. Traffic to your website means business.” To start, publishers should determine their keywords and search phrases that they want to appear in search results for. These are words that their audience will use when searching. There are a number of ways to do this. If publishers already have a website with similar content to what they want to sell, they can look at their site’s analytics and see what keyword phrases visitors are using to find various pages of the site. If publishers do not have a website related to the content they want to sell, they can develop an initial keyword list by searching for similar content online and noting what keywords other brands are using. By tracking the keywords that keep coming up while also considering what keywords the personas would use to find the content, publishers can establish initial keywords that they can edit and refine as the project develops.
Next, publishers should take these keywords and plug them into Google Insights for Search and Google’s External Keyword Tool (both free) so that they can see how often these keywords are used in searches and also get ideas for keywords they may have missed. Google Insights for Search is a tool that looks at the trends in search terms. Publishers can enter a term and see the changes in its use over time. Publishers can also plug in multiple terms to see how their popularity compares. Google’s External Keyword Tool is a tool that shows how often that term is being searched for by geographic area and it also gives keyword suggestions for similar terms that publishers may not have thought of. With the data, publishers can create a keyword list to refer to when they are creating any type of content for the project. It is important to use these keywords in key messages; blog post titles, tags and content; and in content on social networks, because search engines use this content when ranking websites and determining search results. In YouTube, for example, in order for a video to appear in search results, it is important that the video title, description and tags all include the keywords.
An SEO strategy with a thorough keyword list that is used when creating content is necessary for publishers and their materials to be found online. Once publishers have developed a SEO strategy, the next step in monetizing their content online is creating a marketing and outreach plan.
At this stage in the development of a digital publishing strategy, publishers need to develop a marketing and outreach plan by choosing their marketing tactics. For each tactic, they should determine the strategy and goal behind it and what tracking tools will track the tactics’ success. This ensures that all marketing activities are accountable to specific goals and can be modified according their success. The following outlines tactics to consider for marketing digital content.
Blogger outreach is an important online marketing tactic because it is basically online public relations. Blogger outreach helps to get a project’s story noticed and build links back the site – which is important for SEO. There are two aspects to blogger outreach. This first is approaching bloggers who are leaders in their community who would be interested in the project’s story. Publishers should find these people and pitch the project in way that entices them to talk about it. The second aspect of blogger outreach is listening for opportunities to integrate oneself into the conversation. To do this, publishers should set up Google Alerts and saved Twitter searches for the company’s brand name, competitors’ names, and keywords and then, when a related story or conversation arises, join the conversation and find an appropriate time to introduce the project. Blogger outreach can be monitored by an increase in a site’s referral traffic and incoming links.
Social media is an excellent tactic for community building. Sites like Twitter and Facebook are platforms for conversation and a chance to engage an audience on a personal level. The goal of social media is to be interesting and engaging and gain followers and fans. Monitoring tools include Facebook Insights and Twitter platforms like Hootsuite, that show statistics like number of clicks and retweets.
Email newsletters are an effective marketing tactic because subscribers have given publishers permission to market to them. Publishers should be clear in the signup process how often the newsletter will get sent out and follow this schedule. They can use the newsletter to talk about the program, give useful advice and promote special offers. The goal is to further interest readers in the content and brand. Publishers can monitor newsletter open rates and click-throughs with email newsletter services like Campaign Monitor, Mail Chimp, or Constant Contact.
Blogs are good tactics for content generation and for positioning publishers as leaders or resources. Blog posts can be repurposed for blogger outreach, social media and email newsletter fodder. Blogs are also good for SEO because every post is a new page on a website, it creates fresh content for site, and is a chance to integrate keywords – all of which Google looks for when ranking websites. Blogs’ success relies on their level of engagement, which can be monitored through Google Analytics and by looking at the number of comments that blogs receive.
Lastly, contests are another tactic to consider. They are fun, a chance to be creative and, when well executed, can work to promote engagement and buzz about a campaign or brand. Contests can be monitored by looking at the number of entries and by looking at Google Analytics – particularly site traffic, referral traffic and incoming links.
Once tactics have been determined, publishers should create a marketing calendar that outlines weekly or monthly content themes that are carried over across all of the marketing platforms. For example, with the Boxcar Marketing Pro project, if Boxcar were planning to release the How to Use LinkedIn for Business whitepaper at the end of the month, Boxcar would spend that month prior to the release tweeting and blogging about LinkedIn, and position these messages as teaser for the actual report. A marketing calendar helps publishers stay focused in their marketing and ties themes together for the audience. Preferably, a marketing calendar is in the form of a weekly activity timeline so that publishers can be consistent and thorough in their marketing. Ideally, the plan would look like this:
- Spend time listening and building platforms.
- Join in, start conversations and develop relationships.
- Push content out through a blog, email newsletter, Twitter, Facebook and blogger outreach. Establish the company as a leader.
- Tie online promotions to offline activities.
- Pay for some advertising (online or offline).
- Monitor and optimize activities.
A detailed marketing and outreach plan is crucial to a digital publishing strategy because this determines how publishers’ will attract attention to their content. More important than the marketing plan, however, is how publishers will measure the success of their content monetization project and adapt as the project moves forward.
A measurement strategy should be at the core of any digital publishing strategy. The ability to measure the success of marketing online is far more accurate than measurements offline. With any online marketing efforts, publishers need to always ensure that the tactics link back to the strategy, objectives, and goals. Tracking, analysing and responding to the numbers is key to successful online marketing. This includes not only looking at the web stats but analyzing them and using them, as Jason Burby and Shane Atchison authors of Actionable Web Analytics argue, “…to make changes to your site and business decisions based on the data.” In other words, a measurement strategy is about action.
To begin with, publishers need to define the key performance indicators (KPIs) for their campaign. With the business and marketing goals in mind, what is measurable? Publishers trying to sell digital content will want to create awareness about their product, attract customers and loyal fans, and, ultimately, sell the product. Publishers need to think of the actions or goal-paths that lead to these goals. What, of these actions, is measurable? For example, if the goal is to sell the product, the action that leads to a sale is visiting all of the webpages in the checkout process. How many visitors land on the final thank-you page after checkout is measurable and it indicates that they have completed the sale. The development process for KPIs can be visualized as a funnel:
Goal > Action > Measurement (KPI)
With the goals related to selling digital content – creating awareness, attracting customers and promotion engagement, and selling the product – below are some KPIs that publishers should consider. While there are general guidelines for web traffic numbers, what may be ‘normal’ for one site is completely abnormal for another and it is more meaningful to establish a baseline for a particular site and then measure how that fluctuates over time.
188.8.131.52 KPIs Linked to Product and Brand Awareness
KPIs linked to product and brand awareness should focus on the number of people that visit a website and how they found it. Basically, are people aware of and visiting the site? If they are, how did they get there and what was their level of awareness before they visited? Did they already know about the brand and type in the URL? Did they find the site on another website because others are recommending it? The following is a list of web statistics that can help gage the level of awareness about a product and brand.
- Unique Visitors. This shows how many people are visiting a website.
- Direct Traffic. This shows how many people are coming directly to a site by typing in the URL in their address bar. These visitors are coming to the site having already heard about the product or brand.
- Referral Traffic. This shows where visitors are coming from. This is important because referrals are like recommendations. Websites will want to build a relationship with the sites that are directing traffic to them.
- Search traffic. This does not show current awareness but how people are finding the site, which is important for keywords and site content. If familiar keywords are seen month over month, then it indicates a strong interest in a topic or category, which one may want to profile on the home page. Trending keywords should also be used in the site content, for example, as blog posts and page titles, in order to capitalize on new traffic sources.
184.108.40.206 KPIs Linked to Customer Acquisition and Engagement
KPIs linked to customer acquisition and engagement focus on how people interact with a website as well as how they interact with the brand on social networks. Are people spending time on the site? What are they doing? Are they engaging with the brand by listening, sharing or commenting? These are web statistics that show the amount of customers a brand is acquiring and their level of engagement with a site:
- Visits (or visitor sessions). Visits displays the total number of times people come to a site. For example, a user comes to the site today and comes to the site tomorrow. This is one unique visitor and 2 visits. Visits is a good indicator of the engagement level of a site because it shows if people are returning.
- Page Views. Pages Views are the total number of pages requested and served by a web server. This is also a good engagement indicator.
- Send to a Friend or Share clicks. This shows how many people think that the site’s content is something worth sharing with their friends. They are doing word of mouth marketing for the company.
- Average Time on Site. The length of users’ site visits shows how long visitors are spending on the site, which is another good engagement indicator.
- Bounce Rate. This shows whether visitors are spending time on the site or are landing on a webpage and immediately leaving. If the bounce rate is well over 50%, investigate why. Are people not finding what they need?
- Content Consumption. What are the top-level pages? How long are visitors spending on these pages? Is this the most important content or are visitors not finding what they need?
- Exit Pages. What the site’s top exit pages? Why are people leaving here? Is it because they are finished exploring the site or because they cannot find what they are looking for or cannot complete what they are trying to do?
- Number of Facebook Fans, Twitter Followers, Blog RSS Subscribers, Blog Comments. Are people engaging with the site? How do these numbers change month over month? If there is an increase or decrease one month, what activities caused this?
220.127.116.11 KPIs Linked to Ecommerce and Sales
KPIs related to ecommerce and sales focus on how many people are buying, at what levels and their behaviours during the purchase process. The following are web statistics related to sales:
- Overall Purchase Conversion. This is the number of orders divided by the number of total visits to a site. How many visitors are purchasing content?
- Browse to Buy Ratio. How many visitors are not buying content? How far down the purchase funnel do they get? Where in the cart are people dropping off? Why?
- Average Order Size and Items Per Order. How much do customers buy per order? What does this show about their purchasing habits? How much is each customer worth? Divide total site visitors by total sales.
- Conversion of Nonsubscribers to Subscribers and Number of Repeat Visits. This is for subscription sites. How often are visitors converted to new subscribers? Are people returning to the site once they have a subscription? Why or why not?
18.104.22.168 Identify Improvements
Once KPIs start getting tracked, publishers can locate where the problems are with their websites and where improvements can be made. A common issue is what is referred to as “pogo-sticking.” This is when there are a lot of pageviews but a low average time spent on the site. This indicates that visitors are searching around the site and not finding what they are looking for. Another common issue is exit pages. If there are pages that are consistently top exit pages, and they are not thank-you or contact pages – in other words, they should not be exit pages – publishers need to explore why. For example, are these top exit pages confusing? Do they have complicated forms that visitors do not want to fill out? Are pages missing clear calls to action, so visitors do not know what to do or where to go? Once the problem has been identified, publishers can make improvements.
22.214.171.124 Tracking the Numbers
It is important for publishers to spend time every month analyzing the numbers. With the KPIs, they should create a KPI scorecard that is filled in monthly and go back over previous months to determine a benchmark or baseline. What were the numbers like the last couple of months? What were they like a year ago? Looking at the numbers month over month, are they generally the same? Where do they fluctuate? What does this mean in relation to the goals and objectives?
To help track the numbers, publishers can use the Goals feature within Google Analytics to create goals for the website and put a value on different traffic sources. This way it is easier to see how the KPIs are performing. It is also useful to use the Annotations feature. This records marketing activities in a timeline and positions them in relation to the web traffic. For example, if I ran a contest throughout the month of June I can enter the start and end date and see how this affected the number of visitors to my site. Where did those visitors come from? I can look back and use this information as a benchmark for what to expect for the next contest.
With a baseline, publishers can evaluate the numbers to see the results of their marketing activities. The numbers will show what should be repeated, modified, or discarded for something new. By spending time to create a measurement system and scorecard publishers can monitor their marketing activities and, most importantly, adapt their strategy according to the numbers.
126.96.36.199 Return on Investment
A common complaint is that, while it is easy to get numbers online, it is difficult to relate them to Return on Investment (ROI) for the company. In “The Basics of Social Media ROI” Oliver Blanchard outlines how to measure ROI with a company’s social media and online activities by demonstrating how to create an ROI funnel that keeps the business goals and the value of actions in check. He says to start by establishing a baseline for the numbers, so that a company can determine the numbers before online marketing and after. Then he says to create an activity timeline that outlines all of the company’s marketing activities, which should already be outlined in Google Analytics’ Annotations. Next, he says to outline the KPI numbers – sales revenue, number of transactions, new customers, etc. With all of the information laid out, a company can compare their marketing activities with numbers, and look for patterns in data and prove relationships – how certain marketing activities correlate with the KPIs.
From here, companies can place a value on users’ behaviour. Which behaviours lead to sales? Which behaviours lead to indirect sales, like speaker requests? How much are these behaviours worth? For example, publishers can calculate lead value by:
(leads closed x average revenue per sale) / total leads = average lead value.
This helps to put a value on the time spent on online marketing activities, like social media and blogger outreach.
ROI can be measured online. It is just a matter of recording everything – online activities, campaigns, website traffic patterns, transactions, etc. – and analyzing the data in relation to valuable behaviours and revenue.
A measurement strategy should be at the core of a publisher’s overall business plan. This means developing it during the business plan’s initial stages, refining as the business plan develops and measuring and tracking throughout the business’ lifetime. Without a metric strategy in place, it is almost impossible to accurately understanding how a business is performing and, in turn, impossible to know where to make improvements.
This section outlined the steps that publishers can follow to monetize their existing content on the web. To gain further understanding of the content monetization process and what to expect, the next sections are case studies of content monetization projects, including Capulet Communications and their book Friends with Benefits and Boxcar Marketing and its online marketing training program, Boxcar Marketing Pro.
Before Monique Trottier and I started Boxcar Marketing Pro, our online marketing training program, Boxcar Marketing studied a similar project carried out by Capulet Communications, a firm with which Boxcar Marketing has a close working relationship. Capulet’s project is related to the plans for Boxcar Marketing Pro in that they took content that they already had in various formats – presentation notes, online marketing guidelines that they had developed for clients over the years, etc. – repackaged it, and sold it online. Their content not only brought in extra income for the company, but it brought in project requests as well. Because the project is so similar and was in many ways what incited Boxcar Marketing Pro, it is useful to examine their project first.
Capulet Communications Inc. (“Capulet”) is an online marketing company that helps businesses reach their customers in creative and remarkable ways. Owned and run by Darren Barefoot and Julie Szabo, Capulet specializes in reaching out to online influencers with blogger and social media outreach, running online marketing campaigns, and writing web content.
In 2007, Barefoot and Szabo decided to explore another revenue model for the company. Taking what they knew about online marketing and the common questions that most people have, as well as content from talks that Barefoot had been giving, Barefoot and Szabo wrote and self-published an ebook titled, Getting to First Base: A Social Media Marketing Playbook. The book was aimed at marketers from companies, agencies and small businesses with the purpose of giving them the tools to start taking advantage of the marketing opportunities on the web.
The ebook was successful in building an audience for Capulet and it increased the requests they received for projects and speaking gigs. In addition, Barefoot and Szabo used the ideas in the book to build a full-day Social Media Marketing Bootcamp (which I have attended), giving a copy away for free as part of the cost of the ticket.
In 2009, Capulet published a print version of the ebook, Friends with Benefits, published by No Starch Press and distributed by O’Reilly Media. Barefoot and Szabo continue to repurpose the content from both the ebook and the print book for speaking engagements and marketing opportunities for the company.
Capulet marketed their ebook aggressively for a couple of months – deciding to focus their marketing efforts directly before and directly after the ebook’s release – and did not do any marketing after that because they got too busy with other projects. They used a wide variety of promotional tactics, including advertising the book in the bimonthly Capulet newsletter, setting up a Facebook Group (but they admit that they did not do much with it), and promoting and advertising on Barefoot’s blog. In addition, they sent letters to eight “top-level bloggers” in their target audience. The letters were in the form of a love letter (to go with the theme of the book) and included a link to a personalized landing page with a personalized video for each blogger. The eight videos were simple and shot with a hand-held camera and featured Szabo and Barefoot addressing each blogger on why they should care about the book. Capulet also sent twenty to thirty review copies to “secondary-level bloggers”, as well as review copies to any legitimate blogger that asked, sending out 120 review copies in total. They also received email addresses from everyone who bought the book and, in 2009 when they released the print edition, they used the 500 email addresses that they collected to promote their print book. Now, since the print book has been published, Capulet sees the ebook as an asset and gives it away as a ‘value-add’ at events.
The key to Capulet’s marketing is that they created a campaign that was engaging, relevant to their target audience, and reinforced their brand. Capulet understood that they were selling a story, found the best way to tell the story and made it matter to people.
In terms of marketing conversion rates, the list below represents the majority of the sites that sent Capulet referral traffic over fourteen months, and the conversion rate for each site. These statistics were measured by tracking conversion data in Google Analytics. Barefoot says that these numbers reflect what they see on their client sites, except that YouTube is unusually high. As Barefoot notes, they think that this may be because YouTube was referred to from other sites so visitors were already interested and then the video convinced them to buy. Barefoot also notes that the content relating to their book on the referral site affected the conversion rate. Sites with more content and information about their book converted higher than those with just a link.
- Capulet Communication Website: 7.9%
- YouTube: 6.4%
- Facebook: 6.2%
- TopRankBlog: 5%
- Direct (reflecting offline marketing): 4%
- Common Craft: 2.9%
- Web-Strategist: 2.5%
- Flickr: 1.27%
- DarrenBarefoot.com (ran an ad on all 4500 of his archived pages): 1%
- Seth Godin: 0.8%
- Google: 0.7%
- Twitter: 0.7% (note: this could be so low because they stopped promoting the book in March/April 2008)
This numbers are useful benchmarks for us to use for our marketing and give us a good indication of what to expect from our own efforts.
Capulet decided to sell their ebook for $29 and, after costs, made $27 on every book sold. They had one or two people complain about the price point but, other than that, found that people were comfortable with the price. They did not, however, conduct research to see if they would have sold more books at a lower price point. Barefoot says that they did not spend a lot of time thinking about the price, they just did some quick market research on similar books’ price points and choose one that was a little bit higher than the minimum they were willing to charge. This allowed them to offer some books at a discount at $24. On request, they also added a site license model where they charged $300 for a conference to give out unlimited copies to their attendees. Barefoot figures that each site license is worth about ten to twelve copies in sales.
The ebook took one hundred hours to write and Barefoot and Szabo spent sixty hours marketing the book. They sold 500 copies and feel that if they had spent sixty more hours marketing the book, that they could have doubled their sales. 500 copies at $27 equals $13,500; divided by 160 hours spent writing and marketing book means that Capulet earned $84 an hour from the book.
Although $84 an hour is less than Capulet’s hourly business rate, the book really helped to market the company. Almost three years after publication and with zero promotion, they still sell one or two books a week. And since the ebook was published, Capulet receives double the amount of job requests than they did before. But Capulet also admits that, since the ebook, the quality of the job requests they receive has gone down. Although Capulet Communications did not set up an affiliate program, Barefoot admits that, while he estimates that it would have been about ten hours of work to set up, they would have sold noticeably more ebooks with an affiliate program in place.
As Monique Trottier and I develop the Boxcar Marketing Pro project, we have been using Capulet’s project as a guideline – particularly their marketing efforts, conversion rates, and the level of success they saw for their overall project.
Boxcar Marketing (“Boxcar”) is an online marketing company. Started by James Sherrett and Monique Trottier, the company specializes in helping businesses succeed online through internet marketing, including social media, search engine optimization and email campaigns; website design and online strategy. Boxcar Marketing positions itself as a upfront team that gets the job done and aims to make customers smarter and the client’s job easier.
In the summer of 2009, while I was an intern at Boxcar, Trottier and I started developing Boxcar Marketing Pro, an online marketing training program. This is a project to monetize the company’s existing content that Boxcar has created – content such as notes, resources, and presentation materials that has been created in the process of consulting. Trottier had been exploring this idea for the past year or so and saw an opportunity to sell high-level marketing materials along with resources that help marketers get their work done. While there is a lot of content available on online marketing strategy, social media marketing, and other marketing ‘how-to’ topics, this content is not packaged as tactical templates and checklists that can help execute online marketing strategies, nor is the content portrayed as high-level learning or training packages. Some universities offer online marketing courses for business professionals, Queen’s University for example, but many marketers either cannot afford these courses or do not have time to take them. So Trottier saw an opportunity for Boxcar Marketing to fill this gap. The company already has a lot of useful content – content that is used for speaking engagements, strategy sessions and marketing plans. The project’s purpose is to find a way to repackage this content and sell it online earning extra income for the company. This would be a chance to supplement Boxcar’s existing revenue stream without changing the company’s overall business plan.
Boxcar Marketing is in a good position to take advantage of this opportunity because of its strong following. Trottier began building up an audience for herself in 2005 through her personal blog SoMisguided, which she started while she was working at Raincoast Books. When she started Boxcar Marketing in 2006, she continued to build a following through online channels. The Boxcar Marketing blog, Boxcar’s monthly newsletter Underwire, and Twitter are all platforms where Trottier has built a following by offering free marketing advice. Despite her online efforts, the majority of Trottier and Boxcar’s audience is built through word-of-mouth. Trottier is active in the marketing and technology community, often doing speaking gigs and consulting sessions, and people that have met her or heard her speak often recommend Boxcar Marketing to their colleagues. As of July 2010, Trottier has over 1,100 people following her tweets on her SoMisguided Twitter account. Trottier’s existing audience consists of over 1,100 people throughout Vancouver, Calgary, Toronto and San Francisco. Through free online content and paid consultation, Trottier has positioned herself and the company as an authority in the online marketing space and Boxcar Marketing Pro can build this authority further.
This project is meant to generate additional income for Boxcar Marketing that can be used for further developments for the company, like Google and Facebook pay-per-click campaigns and a website redesign. Second, the project is meant as a marketing tool. Boxcar Marketing Pro materials can be used to create an audience for the Boxcar brand and bring in project requests. Boxcar will encourage buyers of the Boxcar Pro materials to take advantage of the company’s other offerings, including its full consulting services.
While the project has not launched yet, this case study explores the processes involved in monetizing content on the web. It highlights Boxcar’s progression, the decisions that were made as the project developed and how the project has unfolded so far. These methods and tactics can be used as a jumping off point for publishers to monetize their own content.
The research for the project began with an examination of different training models and online marketing courses and explored who was doing what, what individuals and companies are willing to pay for, the best way to learn this type of information and how they costed their product.
Boxcar did some broad research online, both inside the marketing industry and outside the industry, to see how other companies are offering and selling content. Boxcar decided to focus on smaller companies who were doing a variety of interesting things with their content and narrowed the majority of the research to six companies. Common Craft is an online video company that produces educational videos for both individuals and organizations. Dell’s Social Media for Small Business offers social media guides and screen casts for small and medium-sized businesses via its Facebook page. My Yoga Online is an online yoga instruction video service. Mequoda is a consultancy company that helps publishers make money online and offers marketing materials in a subscription model. MarketingProfs is a website that offers free and paid marketing resources. Queen’s University’s Executive Development Marketing Program is a university-level marketing course for business professionals.
All of the companies offered something for free – previews, excerpts, or free tips and advice – that helped to give a sense of what they were selling. For example, My Yoga Online provides a free two-minute preview of a video before purchase and Mequoda offers free daily tips and weekly whitepapers. The free content helped to establish these companies’ authority in the space – which is particularly effective if the company is new – and helped to market the paid content. For example, once users sign up to receive Mequoda’s free daily tips and download its free whitepapers, if they want further information on related topics, they can buy their handbooks, case studies, and webinars based on the perceived quality of its content.
In addition, companies that offered site licenses or subscriptions to their content had a fair amount of content available to subscribers. This vast amount of content helps to make the subscription more valuable. Users are more willing to pay a monthly fee for a subscription if they know there is a lot of content that they can use and take advantage of and so the benefits outweigh the cost. For example, MarketingProfs has a ton of valuable content available to its Pro Members, which encourages people to subscribe, including how-to articles, exclusive case studies, online seminars and special reports.
While Boxcar was researching the market, the company was also collecting content ideas. Boxcar researched what others were selling as educational materials, looking at Mequoda, MarketingProfs and Queen’s University’s Executive Development Marketing Program. The research found that presenting content as ‘best practices’ and ‘how-to’ advice was very popular. For example, Mequoda’s “10 Email Newsletter Design Best Practices” and MarketingProfs’ “How to Creating a Content Strategy for B2B Nurturing Campaigns” are both whitepapers that are packaged as tactical, helpful advice. Case studies were also popular. Both Mequoda and MarketingProfs had a number of case studies that explored the marketing strategies within specific companies. Boxcar also found that while Queen’s University’s program was high-level and business-focused, the course seemed to be missing a practical, hands-on component.
Lastly, Boxcar found that creative licensing and costing is important in order to suit the range of audience needs. For example, Common Craft offers its videos in a variety of licenses. First, its videos are available for free for non-commercial sites, like blogs. Next, there are also several licensing models. There is a license for individual use that is higher quality than the free version, a site license for organizations to use internally, and a commercial license for public company websites. There are also options for bundling videos and ebook versions of their videos available for download at the Kindle Store. Capulet also offered more than one pricing option. It had the $29 ebook, as well as the $300 conference license to the book. With a variety of choices, buyers can find an option that suits them.
Once the market research was completed, Trottier and I outlined the project’s purpose and goals. The business goals for the project are as follows:
- Sell product. Boxcar wants to sell the kits to earn extra income for the company.
- Create demand. Boxcar wants to create demand for the kits and the company’s online marketing consulting services.
Building on these business goals, the marketing goals are:
- Promote awareness about Boxcar Marketing Pro and the Boxcar Marketing brand.
- Position Boxcar as experts in online marketing.
Once Boxcar Marketing Pro’s goals were determined, Boxcar wrote a discovery document that outlined the project’s primary and secondary target audiences, competing and non-competing products that would be of interest to the audience, and the audience’s needs and goals when buying the product.
Based on Boxcar Marketing’s past and current clientele and Trottier’s experience with their varied needs, Boxcar determined that the project’s primary audience is marketers who need more information about online marketing – either marketing directors who want to brush up on new online marketing information and trends, new marketers who are responsible for implementing marketing strategies and need some guidance, or small business people who have to do the marketing for their company and need to quickly learn and implement tactics. Boxcar Marketing works with marketing directors, marketing managers and small business owners from a variety of industries so Boxcar knows that the program will be valuable to this audience group.
Boxcar also determined that the secondary audience is non-profit groups, environmental groups and volunteers. These are people who are doing outreach and community building with their organization’s website, write their organization’s newsletter or manage the organization’s site. Another secondary audience is trade associations. These are people who want to collect materials for their members for professional development. They may be looking for speakers or research materials that can be passed along and will also see benefit in learning about online marketing. Boxcar works with groups such as the Pacific Salmon Foundation and the Canadian Geothermal Energy Association and can see how they would benefit from these materials.
In terms of technical knowledge, in Boxcar’s experience all of these audience groups are fairly proficient online. They use the web, including email and social media, on a daily basis, but want to learn more about how they can use it for marketing purposes. Understanding the audience’s technical abilities is important to know, because it determines both the level of the training materials and how Boxcar can market these to them.
As for competitor’s products of interest to this audience, the following are some of Boxcar Marketing Pro’s competitors: Mequoda, MarketingProfs, MoreVisibility’s training webinars, and conferences such as the Vocus User’s Conference, and Internet Marketing Conference. It is important to keep competitors at top of mind when creating content and marketing materials so that Boxcar can position itself competitively. There are also higher-level training programs that are non-competing products of interest to the audience; these include Queen’s University’s Executive Marketing Program and Simon Fraser University’s Executive Programs, such as the Executive MBA. While they are not direct competitors – because Boxcar is targeting people who either cannot afford these programs or do not have the time to take them – they are still useful to look at for content, content delivery, structure and costs.
Next, Boxcar determined what need the program is trying to fill by outlining the audience’s common complaints and goals. In Trottier’s experience with clients, their common complaints are that they are not seeing ROI in their online marketing, they cannot keep up with all of the changes in online marketing, they need to learn more if they want to get ahead but do not have either the time or money to go back to school, and they want structure to their learning – reading blog posts that they stumble across online is not consistent enough to properly learn from.
From what Trottier sees in her training and consultation sessions, the audiences’ goals are to learn how to fully take advantage of the web for marketing, to have measurable ROIs, to save time and money with both their learning and their marketing, to move forward with either their company or their career, to find an online learning program with structure and value and to understand how the web and web culture works.
From the discovery document, audience personas were developed. This helped to further visualize and understand the audience. From the primary and secondary audience targets, I created Julie, a marketing coordinator at a mid-sized publisher; Ruth the publisher of a mid-sized press; Kate the marketing director for a large company; Heather, a small business owner; Dave, a university department marketer; and Duncan, a trade association director. While this exercise did not change the discovery document information, it helped to make audience members and their goals more concrete and gave Boxcar a reference point when making decisions.
From all of this information, Boxcar wrote a 7-Sentence Marketing Plan:
The purpose of my marketing is to sell 100% of applicable content in a simple, cost-effective manner to create an income stream for Boxcar Marketing. Secondarily it is to generate leads for the company’s full consulting services by showing those in need of online marketing help that Boxcar Marketing can provide quality, results-driven content at a reasonable price. The goal is to encourage the audience to take advantage of all levels of Boxcar’s content, leading up to a consulting contract.
I will accomplish my purpose by creating a model that leverages free content to build trust and brand authority, which then promotes the more valuable paid content to users. The marketing will reinforce the credentials of the Boxcar Marketing team, the easy access to information, the low-risk option of accessing content, and the timeliness of the material.
My target audience is North American marketing people who want to brush up on new online marketing ideas and small business owners who do everything themselves and need be able to quickly learn and implement marketing tools.
Marketing weapons that I plan to employ are Boxcar Marketing’s reputation, Boxcar Marketing’s partners/colleagues, content sharing/exchanging, social media tools like Twitter, blogs, LinkedIn and Google AdWords. Other tools include: persuasive copy, existing platforms, community and word of mouth, free, customer service, social networks, advertising and direct mail, affiliate program and a marketing calendar.
Boxcar’s niche in the marketplace is that the company is platform agnostic and independent of an agency. Boxcar will position itself as friendly, ask-us-anything, fair, reasonable advice providers who focus on hands-on and high-level strategy tips that, once followed, will show results.
The Boxcar Marketing business identity is a blend of professional, speedy, friendly, personable, fairly priced, flexible shop that offers customized advice for those who want to go beyond the paid content. Boxcar makes its clients look smart and makes customers’ interactions online easy. Boxcar speaks human and geek, and if Boxcar can’t answer a question the company can point customers in the right direction.
I plan to devote 10% of projected gross sales to marketing.
Before Boxcar started gathering and creating content, Boxcar needed to develop keywords for the content and marketing materials for SEO purposes, so that Boxcar Marketing Pro would be found online. Keywords came from search terms that visitors use to get to the Boxcar Marketing website, along with common keywords that came up in initial research. Using Google’s External Keyword Tool and Google Insights, Boxcar created a keyword list with keywords categorized by theme. Categorizing keywords by theme makes it easier to determine what keywords to use when writing copy and also makes it easier to create PPC ad campaigns.
Although Boxcar had an idea of what types of content the audience groups are interested in, from my market research and Trottier’s experience and conversations with clients, Boxcar still wanted to ask people directly what they wanted. So Boxcar sent out a survey at the beginning of September through the Underwire monthly newsletter to ask readers what types of content they were interested in. Unfortunately, the survey only got a 1% response rate. While this is not enough data to represent the market, the survey did show that all of the survey respondents were interested in content about online business strategy and the majority were interested in content around social media marketing, content development, and Google analytics.
With all of the research, I gathered the content that Boxcar already had – from Trottier’s presentations and strategy documents – and entered the titles of the materials into a spreadsheet. From here, the titles were categorized so that Boxcar could see common themes within the content. Next, based on the research, Trottier and I added content that the company needs to create to complete these themes. For example, Boxcar often gets asked to develop LinkedIn and Facebook strategies for clients so it was decided that Boxcar needed to create whitepapers on those topics.
Because Boxcar recognized that the audience was looking for higher-level materials with structure to their learning, Boxcar decided to package the content as “kits” based on the common themes that could be seen within the list of content. Each kit will consist of four to six whitepapers, templates and how-to documents that cover the basics within each category and give the audience groups the knowledge and tools they need to be an expert in each subject. Boxcar outlined a Promotions kit, a Web Design kit, an Executive Kit, a Search Marketing kit, an ROI kit, a Publishers kit, and an Operations kit. Each kit includes a combination of whitepapers, tips, how-to, strategies and checklists. Boxcar will also offer the individual content within the kits as a la carte downloads, for those who do not want to buy a full kit. Boxcar has not decided how the kits will be packaged yet, but is considering .zip files with either PDF or .epub files inside.
It was noted during the research stage that almost all of Boxcar’s competitors have content that they give away for free in order to advertise their paid content. This is a valuable marketing tactic, so Boxcar decided to do the same. In order to decide which content should be free and which should be paid, Boxcar categorized the knowledge level of each piece of content, either beginner or advanced, and decided that all of the beginner materials would be available for free. Each kit will have some material that is available for free which will help to market the paid content. While the free material is basic information, the paid portions expand on the free material – similar to how Mequoda’s paid content is an extension of the information that is available for free through its daily tips and whitepapers. In addition, Boxcar already offers free social media, web analytics and email marketing tips in the monthly newsletter and on the Boxcar blog and Boxcar is considering having free previews of the paid content.
In the end, this is what the content grid looked like:
Next, Boxcar explored ecommerce services that offer online shopping carts in order to find the best way to sell the kits. These are companies and services that can manage the downloading of the kits and handle online credit card transactions. Boxcar looked at Digital Chalk, a service that lets users create online courses with their course software; CubeCart, which is ecommerce shopping cart software; and E-junkie, a shopping cart platform that provides buy-now buttons to let users sell downloads on their website through PayPal and Google Checkout. Boxcar chose E-junkie because it seemed the most straightforward. E-junkie’s shopping cart allows Boxcar to set up an ecommerce page on the Boxcar website, add E-junkie’s buy-now buttons, load all of the files to one place, and track sales with a similar code to Google Analytics. E-junkie is also inexpensive. The platform starts $5 month and increases depending on the number of products a company is selling.
With all of this in place, Boxcar developed the marketing and outreach plan. The plan is as follows.
Because much the program is building on Boxcar’s existing reputation, marketing for Boxcar Marketing Pro will start on the Boxcar blog and in Underwire, Boxcar Marketing’s monthly newsletter. Boxcar already has an existing audience in these areas that are interested in online marketing so this is a natural place to start. Boxcar will include content excerpts or how-to advice related to the paid content so that readers can be directed to one of the kits for further information. When promoting, Boxcar will make sure to have direct links related to Boxcar Marketing Pro landing pages and to always encourage an upgrade – even if that is just encouraging blog readers to subscribe to the newsletter. Boxcar can monitor conversion rates with analytics to see the number of visitors that are clicking through to Boxcar Marketing Pro landing pages and, out of these visitors, who are buying kits. Boxcar can also monitor interest by looking at the number of blog comments and newsletter subscribers as well as posting surveys and monitoring the response.
Boxcar Marketing Pro will be promoted on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn. Since the program is business focused, efforts will be concentrated on LinkedIn and Twitter, which are more popular platforms for business conversations. Boxcar will position itself as a resource in these spaces – answering questions on LinkedIn and directing people to useful content on Twitter, for example – while also promoting the Boxcar Marketing Pro content. A recent study showed that marketers most active on Twitter, promoting both their own content as well as the work of others, see better ROI and are more likely to attribute direct sales revenue to Twitter, so Boxcar will make sure to allocate substantial time to these platforms. Boxcar will encourage sharing on these networks with share and tweet buttons and will also encourage retweeting of Boxcar content. Boxcar can monitor its success with Hootsuite, which will show what types of tweets followers click on, Facebook Insights, and analytics which can show what sites are referring traffic to the Boxcar website and which of these sites are referring traffic that convert to sales.
Boxcar has a strong community of fans who are active online so the company will involve them in marketing activities and encourage word of mouth. Boxcar will also perform blogger outreach to the wider community of bloggers and use Google Alerts and Twitter search to find the leaders in the Boxcar’s niche. Boxcar will make it easy for bloggers and others to share promotional content by having benefits lists, excerpts and photos related to the program available on the Boxcar website for bloggers to use. Boxcar can monitor success with this through Google Alerts by recording the number of online mentions received. The company can also monitor the number of incoming links to the site and general traffic increases.
As noted earlier, Trottier has put a lot of energy into developing the Boxcar Marketing brand and Boxcar will use the name that she has built up to establish credibility for the program. Connected to Boxcar Marketing’s reputation is leveraging the company’s partnerships. Being active in the technology community has meant that Trottier has developed various partnerships in the community. Leveraging partnerships will expand Boxcar’s marketing reach and give access to the company’s partners’ resources, such as their online platforms and customer base. The key to successful partnerships is figuring out how the two parties can both benefit each other. For example, most blogs struggle for content so Trottier can guest blog on a partner’s blog, which will give them content and while also promoting Boxcar Marketing Pro. Boxcar can monitor the success of these partnerships with an increase in incoming links, online mentions and traffic to the site.
Barefoot believes that an affiliate program would have significantly increased Capulet’s sales, so Boxcar will spend some time exploring affiliate options and use Barefoot’s estimate of ten hours as a baseline for developing the program.
Boxcar will also promote Boxcar Marketing Pro through advertising and direct mail. Boxcar will do a pay-per-click advertising campaign because it is an effective way to track and monitor both leads and keywords. Boxcar will explore print advertising in Business in Vancouver or Report on Business because some of the target audience fits their readership demographics. Boxcar is also considering a direct mail postcard campaign. Because people get less and less mail now, direct mail is a way to stand out. Similar to how Capulet sent love letters to the top bloggers in their audience group, Boxcar can send out a direct mail campaign related to Boxcar Marketing Pro to top bloggers in the audience groups. In addition, since Boxcar is a partner with AdHack, an advertising community built on crowdsourcing, Boxcar may commission some of AdHack’s creators to produce an online video that can be posted to Boxcar’s online channels. Boxcar can monitor the success of the print and direct mail advertising with unique URLs, and the online advertising can be tracked with analytics.
With all of this planned out, it was time to look at Boxcar Marketing Pro’s costing structure. At this year’s BookNet Canada’s Technology Forum, as well as in an interview on O’Reilly’s Tools of Changing for Publishing, Richard Nash talks about the demand curve. He says that publishers “…capture such a limited amount of the demand under the demand curve,” having only ever captured the demand that lies within the $10 to $30 range. He says, “Below that, we capture no value. Above that, we are giving up most of the value,” arguing that even though some people will pay, say, $10,000 for dinner with Margaret Atwood and others will only ever pay $1 for a digital download, publishers have not figured out how to get that $10,000 from those who are willing to pay it and they refuse to accept anything less than $10 for their product. There is a range of demand for all products and the difficulty of finding a costing model is reaching all of that demand. I started by researching other costing models to see how Boxcar’s competitors were pricing their content:
The majority of the pricing that Boxcar came across was in the $50 to $300 range. To see where Boxcar should be at, the costs were calculated:
Each kit has approximately six documents – three on hand and three that need to be written. So Boxcar estimates, based on other writing projects, that it will take twenty-one hours to write and format each kit.
In terms of Boxcar Marketing Pro’s advertising budget, Boxcar will want to spend $500 a month on a pay-per-click (PPC) advertising campaign. This is generally the minimum amount to spend in order to see results and Boxcar will test out both Google AdWords and Facebook Ads to see where Boxcar gets the best conversions. Once Boxcar determines which platform has a better conversion rate, how to allocate the PPC advertising budget can be decided. I also budgeted $500 a month for other advertising costs. For example, a Business in Vancouver 1/8 page, black and white ad is $800, so with this money Boxcar could do an ad quarterly, or do three ads a year and one direct mail campaign a year.
Looking at the company’s competitors, Boxcar determined that it could reasonably charge $30 to $100 for a whitepaper or template download. A higher price point, at $50 a download, was decided on because at this price, it makes sense for someone to go through the hassle of a credit card transaction. With that, it was decided to price the kits at $199, hopefully making it more appealing for users to buy the entire package. There’s five paid a la carte downloads in each kit so there is a $50 savings when they buy the whole kit for $199. Boxcar decided against a subscription model because there is not enough content to offer right now, but this model may be explored once Boxcar has built up its content offerings. Including Boxcar’s basic consultation services, which start at $1500, with this pricing model Boxcar have captured four levels of demand for its product and services:
Free > $50 a la carte > $199 kit > $1500 consultation
To break even on the start-up costs of $1,930 Boxcar needs to sell ten kits. In terms of profit, Boxcar is going to aim to make $18,000 a year, by year two. Trottier and I think this is reasonable as a starting point and is a substantial contribution to Boxcar’s additional business development fund. To break even on the yearly costs of $7,380, Boxcar needs to sell thirty-seven kits, or three kits a month. This means that to earn a profit of $18,000 a year Boxcar has to sell just over ten kits a month.
In terms of a conversion rate, Boxcar will aim for 1% to 3% conversion initially, which is the generally accepted average conversion rate online. Capulet’s marketing conversion rates ranged from 7.9% to 0.7%, with an average of 3%, so aiming for 1% to 3% conversion is reasonable. Once Boxcar has reached 3%, Boxcar will aim for 5%, then 10%. As more content is developed Boxcar will be able to invest more time in marketing as opposed to content development so it can aim for higher conversion rates.
In terms of website visitors, this is what a 1% conversion rate looks like:
Even with just 1% conversion at one thousand unique visits a month, Boxcar would sell ten kits a month, so the goals are realistic.
Boxcar also realizes that the marketing efforts will increase visits to the site. Because Boxcar is often very busy with clients, the company is not consistent in its own marketing. Trottier performed an experiment in April 2010, where she blogged twice a week, tweeted for the company on a regular basis and performed some outreach. From this, Boxcar saw a noticeable increase in traffic to the site. Boxcar had over 60% increase in unique visitors from March to April and, importantly, this traffic continued into May, where Boxcar still saw a 30% increase from March. This gives Boxcar an idea of what can be expected from marketing efforts for the program.
The hours that Capulet spent marketing their book is a good baseline for Boxcar. They spent sixty hours marketing the book over a couple of months, so Boxcar should estimate twenty to thirty hours a month for the Boxcar Marketing Pro program since Boxcar wants to spread marketing efforts out. Unlike Capulet, Boxcar will need to continuously promote the program, since Boxcar will be releasing new kits periodically. It is interesting that Capulet believes that spending sixty more hours marketing the book could have doubled their sales, and Boxcar should track the relationship between marketing hours and sales.
Other than extras like pay-per-click advertising, banner ads and direct mail pieces, Boxcar’s marketing hours and costs will be allocated to Boxcar Marketing’s overall marketing costs. This is because most of the planned marketing tactics – blogging, tweeting, and blogger outreach – are already a part of Boxcar’s business costs and, since the project is meant to market the company as a whole, these costs can be absorbed into the company’s regular business expenses.
If Boxcar sells ten kits a month with yearly costs at $7,380, it will break even by month four. The kit development costs will take longer to recoup, however because their costs are so high. It will cost just over $16,000 for all seven kits to be developed, so Boxcar will have to launch the program with just three kits, starting with the ones that either have the most demand or the most materials already developed. I believe that three kits will give the program enough weight while balancing what is financially possible. It will cost us $2,310 to develop each kit, which means that after the start-up costs are paid off; each kit will pay for themselves after twelve sales, or, with Boxcar’s target of selling ten kits a month, in the second month.
Trottier and I recognize that the costs are fairly high so another option is to explore where costs can be reduced. All of the estimated hours are based on Boxcar’s experience with other projects so I do not think Boxcar can cut back on those. But the company could try to reduce the hourly rate for those hours. Boxcar could consider hiring an intern to develop the whitepaper templates, ecommerce section on the website and the landing pages. This would cut back on costs but Boxcar would have to factor in training and project management time. The company could also explore hiring an intern for content development – which is where most of the costs are right now. Boxcar would have to be careful, however, because the program is about selling valuable content so quality control is important.
It is interesting that Capulet significantly increased their business requests after they published their ebook. When outlining when Boxcar will recoup the project’s costs Boxcar should keep this in mind and be willing to make less profit if it leads to more business – in Capulet’s case it doubled their business requests.
After six months Boxcar will decide how to move forward with the remaining kits. Also, if Boxcar is not meeting its targets, the company will examine the promotional and financial strategies and see where improvements can be made.
If, going back to the business plan, Boxcar’s goals are:
- Sell product.
- Create demand.
And Boxcar’s marketing goals are:
- Promote awareness about Boxcar Marketing Pro and the Boxcar Marketing brand.
- Position Boxcar as experts in online marketing.
What can be measured? Overall, the project’s ROI funnel looks like this:
Boxcar’s direct business goal is to sell kits to add to Boxcar Marketing’s revenue stream. The KPI related to this goal is sales. To measure sales Boxcar would set up a goal funnel in Google Analytics that track visitors’ purchase path. For example, if Boxcar set up a goal that tracks each page that a visitor goes through in the purchase process, ending with the “thank-you for purchasing” page as the goal, Boxcar can measure the number of visitors that land on the thank-you page in relation to the total number of website visitors. Boxcar can also track visitors as they go through the purchase process and see if there are pages in the purchase path where visitors are abandoning the process. If there are common exit pages, then Boxcar will explore how to best optimize those pages, for example with more persuasive copy, a shorter form, or easier ways to complete the task.
The indirect business goal is to increase demand for Boxcar’s consulting services. This can be measure offline, by comparing the number of consultancy contracts before the program and after. Boxcar can also measure online interest in consultancy by adding a button or link to the website for visitors to click on to find out more information about Boxcar’s consulting services.
In terms of marketing goals, Boxcar can measure whether it succeeds at generating awareness of the company and the brand. KPIs related to this include:
- Number of Facebook fans which can be measured with Facebook Insights
- Number of Twitter followers, Twitter mentions and retweets, which can be measured using Hootsuite or another Twitter analytics provider
- Underwire newsletter subscribers which can be measured with Boxcar’s email newsletter software, Campaign Monitor
- Unique traffic to the website which can be measured with Google Analytics
- Online mentions which can be measured with Google alerts.
- Engagement with the Boxcar website by monitoring Google Analytics and tracking:
- Average time on site
- Top visited content
- Landing pages
- Exit pages
Some of these KPIs are also related to measuring Boxcar’s success at establishing itself as an expert in online marketing, namely number of Twitter followers and subscribers to the newsletter. The number of visits to the blog, which can be tracked with Google Analytics, is another indicator of Boxcar’s authority in the online marketing space. LinkedIn also has an “expert” feature where people that answer questions can be graded as “experts” so efforts can be monitored there, too.
As the project moves forward, Boxcar will create a baseline and monitor progress by comparing the KPIs and analytics numbers with online and offline activities. This way Boxcar can monitor can see which activities have the most effect on the project’s goals and the strategy can be adjusted accordingly.
As both Boxcar Marketing’s and Capulet Communications’ case studies show, there are opportunities for publishers to monetize their existing content online. When approached strategically, this content will market the brand for its wider business goals and aims, creating broader opportunities for the company.
That is not to say that there are not problems within each of these business models. Capulet became overloaded with other work, had to stop their marketing and promotion efforts and missed out on further sales. In terms of Boxcar Marketing, high costs and time commitments related to content development have hindered the implementation of the project. But publishers can learn from these problems. They should stretch out their marketing efforts so that they do not get overloaded and stop promoting their project. They should be prepared to incur costs and find ways to cut down on expenses – by using interns, for example. Publishers should never underestimate the opportunities and the opportunity costs for a digital publishing project.
The best way to take advantage of these opportunities is by appealing to new market realities and how new users engage with content and brands. This means that publishers should focus their efforts on a niche level and appeal to users by supporting and leading tribes within the new purchase funnel – finding the compelling aspects of the product that users will want to share, earning trust by being authentic in conversations with communities, and securing permission to continue engaging with communities in the future.
The Boxcar Marketing case study serves as a platform for publishers to build their own content monetization programs and outlines the steps that publishers need to take.
To start, publishers need to find opportunity with their content. Is there a need in the marketplace that the company can fill? Does the company have existing content that can be repurposed online to fill this need? Once the content has been determined, publishers need to create a business plan by clearly defining the program’s purpose and goals and outlining the target audience. Preferably, publishers will already have an existing audience base to build on. With the audience in mind, publishers should experiment with how to best deliver the content to the audience in a way that either helps them learn valuable information or gives them ways to interact with and connect with others. This also includes figuring out what can be free that will market the paid content and positioning the free content so that taking advantage of the paid upgrade is encouraged.
Next, publishers should create a thorough marketing plan that covers multiple channels, with clearly defined strategy and goals behind each tool. Each tool should also have measuring tactics in place. Publishers should not use all of the tools, but choose the tools that will help better execute the strategy and reuse content wherever possible. Both of these tactics will help save time and effort. Once the marketing tools have been decided, marketers need to create an activity timeline that helps them company be consistent and thorough in their marketing.
When costing the materials, publishers need to cover the demand curve by experimenting and responding to the market. They should also set reasonable sales targets. If the financials do not work out, publishers need to change their plans so that they do. Boxcar Marketing, for example, had to limit the amount of kits that it started with, so publishers may have to narrow down the size of their programs, too.
With the business and marketing goals, publishers should determine what can be measured. With clearly defined KPIs, they need to create a culture of analysis where all activities are tracked and measured and related back to ROI. Publishers need to schedule time every month to look at the numbers and make strategic changes to the program and the marketing plan in relation to the data.
The Boxcar Marketing Pro case study demonstrates that an online content monetization program does not have to be on a large scale. The initial goal for the project is to sell ten kits a month. By selling just ten kits a month, Boxcar will break even on the start-up costs after the first month and will start to earn $18,000 a year by year two (less kit development costs) – an ample amount of revenue considering that Boxcar is reusing content that is already on hand. This is not a large-scale, unwieldy project but a manageable one that, with the right content, clearly defined audience and well-thought out business plan, many can implement.
Although the Boxcar Marketing Pro strategy is not perfect, it is a workable business plan for digital publishing – an area where there has been lots of discussion but no detailed strategy. The business plan is meant to be a platform to build upon and, now that the model has been developed, it can be refined and adjusted going forward. For example, if as Boxcar Marketing Pro develops it turns out that the $199 price point for the kits is too high, Boxcar can reduce the price point and then adjust the related numbers, like the breakeven point or conversion targets. Because the details have been worked out, it is now just a matter of tweaking and fine-tuning.
Digital publishing itself is an abstract idea, but the business model outlined in this paper gives publishers a concrete strategy to work from. Like the profit and loss statements that publishers create before publishing a book, this strategy works out the numbers for publishing online. Now that the business model has been developed, publishers can benefit from their existing content and earn additional revenue for their companies by taking advantage of the opportunities that exist on the web.
JULIE > PUBLISHING MARKETER
Basics (Demographics & Psychographics)
30-something, female, marketing coordinator of a mid-size publisher. Julie handles marketing and promotions, must report to superiors on the effectiveness of campaigns and needs to lobby for online and marketing budget increases.
She has a wide range of interests both professionally and personally. She is involved with music, art, photography, slow food, design, books, and magazines. She likes recommendations from friends and believes that she is an early adopter.
I don’t have time to come up with new ideas all the time. I really want to, which means I can’t spend time on the details of the process. I need checklists, I need to show ROI, I need to quickly take an idea and get buy-in and budget. I need to get from idea to execution quickly.
Fairly savvy but might not think so. She uses a lot of technology and can easily pick up how to do something. She’s ok experimenting if it looks easy and useful.
Julie uses/enjoys these websites:
Goals (I want/I need)
- I want to focus on the ideas and execution rather than reporting.
- I want to easily pull together a report after the fact.
- I need to know what things I can measure.
- I need checklists so it’s easier to pass things on to interns or other staff.
- I want a place to find ideas that I can modify for our purposes.
- I want to know what’s going to work (because I don’t want to take risks, because I can’t tailor each campaign, because I need to show case studies to my boss)
- It has to be easy to search and find relevant results
- I need to quickly see if it is relevant or how it applies to my situation
Useful Content for Julie
- Links to resources: blogs, inspiration, big thought leaders, things to read, new stories, industry how to/ebooks
- Checklists: landing pages, campaign templates
- Ideas + budget
- Quick mix and match, decision matrix
- Case studies (local)
- Author survey: working with blogging authors or authors not online
- Keyword generation and SEO 101
- Press release how to
- How to find audience online
- ROI: what can you measure
- Free: what can you give to get
- Lone evangelist (getting buy-in)
RUTH > PUBLISHER
Basics (Demographics & Psychographics)
50-something female publisher of a mid-size press. Ruth is a publisher with a huge amount of industry experience. She handles all of the long-term planning for her company, controls the purse strings and has various departments reporting to her.
Ruth says she understands the online world but needs to be convinced of new ideas. She says she wants to see the numbers when asked to part with her money, but it’s really about needing to see credible sources and something she that can relate to before she can learn something new.
Ruth has a wide range of interests both professionally and personally. She is interested in books, magazines, art, design, interior decorating, traveling and staying fit. She likes to lead the pack and make recommendations to friends and family. While she used to be an early adopter, she is now part of the early majority.
I want to spend my money on proven methods that I understand and I can’t afford to jump at every new opportunity. I’ve been working in the industry for over thirty years and while I understand that things are changing, to me, a book is still a book.
She thinks she understands the web but only uses it at a basic level. She has email, visits news and book websites, and is aware of social media tools like Twitter and Facebook but has never used them.
Ruth uses/enjoys the websites:
- · http://www.nytimes.com
Goals (I want/I need)
- I need to choose tactics well
- I need to know who to read given limited time
- I need a filter so I save time
- I need credible sources that I can relate to
- I need to quickly see if it is relevant or how it applies to my situation
- I need to know how online fits in to the bigger publishing picture
- I want to see case studies from companies I know
- I want to see value in where I spend my money
- I want to see reporting/numbers on where I spend my money
- I want validation and an increased profile for my company
- I want to network at “C” level
- I want it to be easy to search and find relevant results
Useful Content for Julie
- Big Picture: case studies (submit yours) publicity opportunities
- Short/sweet, executive summaries
- Inspiration, big idea stuff
- Who’s doing what and how do I compare
- Resources: compete.com, ROI calculators
- Service Directory: who does what on short notice
- Cost and budget checklists
- Visuals, graphs, things to put into presentations
- Decision matrix
- Ad networks
- Question Box
- Consulting Help
- How to choose a path
- Reading List: who to follow FB, Twitter, Business reading
KATE > MARKETING DIRECTOR
Basics (Demographics & Psychographics)
Kate is in her late 40s/early 50s and is a female marketing manager for a large company. She has worked for the company for 10 years, has five people reporting to her and reports to the CEO.
Kate develops and executes company-wide marketing and business planning but also tries to stay on top of the smaller marketing campaigns. She’s a big-picture thinker and generally has more ideas than she can execute.
Kate understands and likes the internet but doesn’t know if she’s using it to her full advantage in her marketing. She knows that by now her online marketing shouldn’t be in addition to her offline marketing, but she doesn’t know how to fully integrate the two.
Kate works hard and only has a few interests outside of work. She is interested in mystery novels, interior design and trying to stay active. She likes to lead the pack and make recommendations to friends and family. While she used to be an early adopter, she is now part of the early majority.
I know that professional development is important and I want to stay on top of marketing trends but I can’t fit the high costs of training and conferences in to my budget.
Kate uses the internet daily for email, news, blogs, and community sites. While she doesn’t know how to build websites, she can tell a good one from a bad one.
Kate uses/enjoys these websites:
Goals (I want/I need)
- I need to continue to stay relevant in my field with pro-d
- I need to learn how to integrate online with offline work
- I need to learn how online marketing can deliver ROI
- I need to train my staff on a budget
- I need to justify where I spend my budget
- I need to report to stakeholders
- I want to learn both at a hands-on level and at a strategy level
- I want to have tools for metrics
- I want to be able to direct those under me to training resources
- I want to be respected as an expert by stakeholders
- I want my ideas to be respected and heard
- I want to fully understand the new marketing rules
HEATHER > SMALL BUSINESS OWNER
Basics (Demographics & Psychographics)
Heather is 30-something, female, and small business owner. She is the only employee so she does everything herself, wears many hats and needs to be able to quickly learn and implement.
Heather fully understands the web but doesn’t have time to stay on top of every new trend. Her company relies on its’ ‘hip factor’ but she still needs to run a solid business. Heather needs new tools and tips that are reliable, worth her time, and will help stabilize/grow her company.
Heather works hard at her startup yet manages to have lots of different hobbies and interests. She is an avid reader of both fiction and nonfiction, enjoys shopping, design, going to the gym, and meeting up with friends. She likes to lead the pack and make recommendations to friends and family. She is an early adopter.
I want the marketing know-how to be successful with my marketing, show ROI, yet not spend tons of time and resources on it.
Heather is tech-savvy. Her business is online and she does most of the design and development of her company’s website herself. She has a blog and a strong online presence.
Heather uses/enjoys these websites:
Goals (I want/I need)
- I need to grow my company by building its online presence
- I need to learn easy-to-implement reliable marketing techniques
- I need to show ROI from my marketing
- I need to learn how to do it all myself
- I need to quickly learn
- I need information to come to me – I won’t remember to find it
- I need the value to be apparent right away
- I need to justify time spent on marketing
- I want to know how to save time and money
- I want to have a strategy and goals in place for all my marketing
- I want to learn both at a hands-on level and at a strategy level
DAVE > UNIVERSITY/COLLEGE DEPARTMENT MARKETER
Basics (Demographics & Psychographics)
30-something male, Dave works in the marketing and communications department at a university. Dave reports to the department head and he (along with one other person) does all of the marketing for the entire department. Dave is responsible for developing the communication department’s brand identity. Dave is also responsible for attracting new students and keeping current students involved in the department. His work indirectly affects the budget allocated to communications.
The department is growing and wants to increase it’s visibility in the school by appealing to students, potential students, parents and employers. They know that to do so they need to get more online but they don’t know where to start. They’ve asked Dave to take the lead on this.
Dave is happily married and he and his wife are trying to have a baby. In his spare time he enjoys going on hikes, having dinners with close friends, blogging, and reading fiction
Dave is proficient with the web and enjoys learning new things. He blogs regularly and uses Facebook. He doesn’t know how to use the web for higher-level tasks like SEO, analytics, reporting, but he’s willing to learn.
Dave uses/enjoys these websites:
- Communication Department Website
Goals (I want/I need)
- I need to attract new students to the history department
- I need to engage current students
- I need to make the department attractive to parents and employers
- I need to increase the department’s visibility within the school
- I need to move most (if not all) of the department’s marketing efforts online
- I need to know how to develop an online marketing plan
- I need to know how to report on my marketing efforts
- I need to know how to integrate social media into a marketing plan
- I need to know the basics of SEO, email newsletters, PPC, landing pages
- I want checklists and templates – I don’t want to start everything from scratch
DUNCAN > TRADE ASSOCIATION DIRECTOR
Basics (Demographics & Psychographics)
Duncan is a mid-fifties director for an Energy Association and he wants to collect materials for his member’s professional development. He is looking for material that he can pass along as training material but also sees benefit in knowing this stuff himself. He has a budget for pro-d and would like to find something that he could subscribe his members to, rather than just one-off material.
Goals (I want/I need)
- I need to keep the trade association up on trends
- I need training material that I can pass along to my members
- I need to give them valuable information
- I want to easily find valuable information
- I want to be able to subscribe my members rather than just one-off material
- I want information that will help members improve their marketing, planning and show ROI
|Keywords||Ad Competition||Local Search Vol: July||Global Monthly Search Vol||Category|
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|pay per click marketing||1||33100||22200||Advertising|
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|ppc internet advertising||0.86||2400||1300||Advertising|
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|ppc search engine internet advertising||1||1600||880||Advertising|
|ppc search engines||1||4400||3600||Advertising|
|b2b e marketing||0.46||-1||320||Executive|
|b2b lead generation||1||4400||4400||Executive|
|best practices strategy||0.46||880||720||Executive|
|business goal setting||0.86||4400||1900||Executive|
|business management trends||0.33||-1||590||Executive|
|business marketing techniques||0.66||2400||1600||Executive|
|business marketing tips||0.86||4400||2900||Executive|
|business marketing tools||0.86||2400||1600||Executive|
|business to business marketing strategy||0.93||590||720||Executive|
|business to consumer marketing||0.8||720||1000||Executive|
|company goal setting||0.66||210||260||Executive|
|consulting internet marketing services||1||6600||3600||Executive|
|corporate internet marketing||0.73||880||590||Executive|
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|developing a business plan||0.93||1900||2400||Executive|
|e business marketing plan||0.33||480||260||Executive|
|e business marketing strategies||0.6||390||480||Executive|
|e business marketing strategy||0.73||880||720||Executive|
|e internet marketing||0.46||6600||5400||Executive|
|e learning marketing||0.73||590||1000||Executive|
|e marketing campaigns||0.46||-1||390||Executive|
|e marketing consultant||0.66||390||390||Executive|
|e marketing course||0.73||880||880||Executive|
|e marketing courses||0.6||210||480||Executive|
|e marketing how||0||-1||390||Executive|
|e marketing seminar||0.46||260||210||Executive|
|e marketing solution||0.73||880||880||Executive|
|e marketing strategies||0.8||3600||2400||Executive|
|e marketing strategy||0.86||4400||3600||Executive|
|e marketing templates||0||-1||320||Executive|
|e marketing tips||0.6||720||390||Executive|
|e marketing tool||0.73||480||720||Executive|
|e marketing training||0.6||58||320||Executive|
|easy internet marketing||0.8||-1||880||Executive|
|easy online marketing||0.6||-1||390||Executive|
|effective internet marketing||1||6600||5400||Executive|
|effective marketing tools||0.73||480||720||Executive|
|effective online marketing||0.93||1300||1600||Executive|
|goal setting objectives||0.46||-1||210||Executive|
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|goal setting strategies||0.8||590||590||Executive|
|goal setting strategy||0.73||260||210||Executive|
|goal setting success||0.66||1600||1300||Executive|
|goal setting template||0.8||2400||2900||Executive|
|guide internet marketing||0.73||8100||6600||Executive|
|help internet marketing||0.53||1900||1600||Executive|
|how to create a business plan||0.86||1900||1900||Executive|
|how to develop a business plan||0.8||1000||880||Executive|
|how to internet marketing||0.73||3600||2900||Executive|
|how to prepare a business plan||0.8||880||1000||Executive|
|internet as a marketing tool||1||720||590||Executive|
|internet business guide||1||3600||2400||Executive|
|internet business help||0.66||1300||880||Executive|
|internet business planning||0.6||1300||590||Executive|
|internet business strategy||1||9900||4400||Executive|
|internet business strategy||1||9900||4400||Executive|
|internet business tools||0.8||880||720||Executive|
|internet marketing analysis||0.93||720||1600||Executive|
|internet marketing and advertising||1||14800||6600||Executive|
|internet marketing basics||0.93||1300||880||Executive|
|internet marketing campaign||1||6600||3600||Executive|
|internet marketing campaigns||1||880||1000||Executive|
|internet marketing cost||0.66||-1||1000||Executive|
|internet marketing course||1||18100||14800||Executive|
|internet marketing courses||1||3600||2900||Executive|
|internet marketing expert||1||8100||5400||Executive|
|internet marketing guide||1||8100||6600||Executive|
|internet marketing help||1||1900||1600||Executive|
|internet marketing how to||0.86||3600||2900||Executive|
|internet marketing management||0.93||2900||2400||Executive|
|internet marketing plan||1||12100||8100||Executive|
|internet marketing planning||0.53||-1||390||Executive|
|internet marketing proposal||0.66||-1||320||Executive|
|internet marketing report||1||1600||1300||Executive|
|internet marketing strategies||1||12100||14800||Executive|
|internet marketing strategy consultant||0.8||1000||480||Executive|
|internet marketing success||1||5400||4400||Executive|
|internet marketing template||0.33||-1||260||Executive|
|internet marketing tips||1||8100||8100||Executive|
|internet marketing tips||1||8100||8100||Executive|
|internet marketing tool||1||33100||14800||Executive|
|internet marketing training||1||9900||8100||Executive|
|internet marketing training course||0.86||880||720||Executive|
|internet web site marketing||1||49500||22200||Executive|
|marketing a business||0.93||18100||14800||Executive|
|marketing internet services||0.66||60500||40500||Executive|
|marketing on the internet||1||14800||9900||Executive|
|marketing on the web||0.93||6600||2400||Executive|
|marketing online learning||0.6||880||1900||Executive|
|marketing plan strategy||0.86||8100||5400||Executive|
|marketing plan success||0.53||590||390||Executive|
|marketing plan web||0.33||3600||1900||Executive|
|marketing planning and strategy||0.66||720||1000||Executive|
|marketing services website||0.33||3600||2400||Executive|
|marketing site strategy web||0.73||6600||3600||Executive|
|marketing strategies internet||0.46||12100||14800||Executive|
|marketing strategies online||0.53||8100||8100||Executive|
|marketing strategies website||0.2||1300||2900||Executive|
|marketing training seminars||0.66||590||480||Executive|
|marketing website template||0.46||-1||260||Executive|
|marketing website tips||0.13||1000||1000||Executive|
|on line marketing||1||9900||18100||Executive|
|online business financial||0||1600||1300||Executive|
|online business marketing plan||0.4||-1||590||Executive|
|online business model||0.93||2400||2900||Executive|
|online business plan||1||12100||9900||Executive|
|online business planning||0.8||1600||720||Executive|
|online business plans||1||2400||1900||Executive|
|online business strategy||0.93||3600||2400||Executive|
|online marketing analysis||0.8||590||480||Executive|
|online marketing basics||0.73||-1||210||Executive|
|online marketing campaign||1||3600||2900||Executive|
|online marketing campaigns||0.93||1300||1300||Executive|
|online marketing cost||0.53||-1||480||Executive|
|online marketing course||1||8100||6600||Executive|
|online marketing courses||1||4400||4400||Executive|
|online marketing guide||0.86||1600||1600||Executive|
|online marketing help||0.86||880||590||Executive|
|online marketing how to||0.6||4400||2400||Executive|
|online marketing management||0.86||4400||2900||Executive|
|online marketing performance||0.46||14800||4400||Executive|
|online marketing plan||1||5400||4400||Executive|
|online marketing plans||0.86||1000||590||Executive|
|online marketing proposal||0.6||-1||320||Executive|
|online marketing report||0.6||-1||480||Executive|
|online marketing seminar||0.86||720||1600||Executive|
|online marketing seminars||0.8||390||390||Executive|
|online marketing services||1||27100||18100||Executive|
|online marketing tips||1||3600||3600||Executive|
|online marketing tool||1||4400||2400||Executive|
|online marketing tools||1||3600||3600||Executive|
|online marketing training||1||2900||2900||Executive|
|online marketing workshop||0.73||-1||480||Executive|
|online strategic planning||0.26||-1||390||Executive|
|online web marketing||1||22200||14800||Executive|
|online website business||0.93||4400||2400||Executive|
|small business marketing strategies||1||2900||1900||Executive|
|small business marketing strategy||1||4400||2900||Executive|
|small business marketing tips||1||2400||1600||Executive|
|strategic goal setting||0.66||480||320||Executive|
|strategic internet marketing||1||14800||9900||Executive|
|strategic internet marketing services||0.93||1900||1600||Executive|
|strategic management planning||0.73||12100||8100||Executive|
|strategic online marketing||0.8||2400||1300||Executive|
|strategic performance management||0.8||2900||2400||Executive|
|strategic planning strategy||0.53||5400||4400||Executive|
|successful internet marketing||1||2400||1900||Executive|
|template marketing plan||0.53||18100||18100||Executive|
|tips internet marketing||0.53||8100||8100||Executive|
|training internet marketing||0.6||9900||8100||Executive|
|web based marketing||0.93||12100||5400||Executive|
|web marketing course||0.86||1000||880||Executive|
|web marketing guide||0.66||1000||480||Executive|
|web marketing help||0.8||-1||210||Executive|
|web marketing how to||0.46||-1||320||Executive|
|web marketing service||0.86||9900||2900||Executive|
|web marketing services||1||14800||8100||Executive|
|web marketing strategies||1||3600||3600||Executive|
|web marketing strategy||1||14800||8100||Executive|
|web marketing templates||0||-1||210||Executive|
|web marketing tip||0.73||2900||1600||Executive|
|web marketing tips||0.86||1300||720||Executive|
|web marketing tool||0.93||8100||2900||Executive|
|web marketing tools||0.93||2900||1600||Executive|
|web marketing training||0.8||6600||1300||Executive|
|web site marketing services||1||6600||2900||Executive|
|digital workflow management||0.33||-1||260||Operations|
|business email marketing||1||74000||18100||Promotions|
|business email newsletters||0.46||-1||210||Promotions|
|e mail for marketing||0.13||-1||1900||Promotions|
|e mail marketing campaign||0.8||720||590||Promotions|
|e mail marketing strategy||0.73||590||260||Promotions|
|e newsletter marketing||0.53||880||880||Promotions|
|effective email marketing||1||1900||1300||Promotions|
|email internet marketing promotion||0.86||4400||2400||Promotions|
|email marketing campaigns||1||3600||4400||Promotions|
|email marketing solution||1||9900||8100||Promotions|
|email marketing solutions||1||5400||8100||Promotions|
|email marketing strategy||1||5400||2900||Promotions|
|email marketing tips||1||4400||3600||Promotions|
|email marketing tools||1||4400||2900||Promotions|
|email newsletter design||0.86||2400||1900||Promotions|
|email newsletter marketing||0.93||18100||4400||Promotions|
|email promotion internet marketing||1||4400||2400||Promotions|
|internet marketing promotion advertising||1||6600||3600||Promotions|
|landing page optimization||0.86||9900||5400||Promotions|
|marketing with email||0.8||2400||2400||Promotions|
|online email marketing||1||12100||6600||Promotions|
|online marketing promotion||0.93||40500||18100||Promotions|
|web site promotion internet marketing||1||14800||8100||Promotions|
|web site promotion marketing||1||22200||12100||Promotions|
|book company online publishing||0.53||390||170||Publishing|
|how to publish ebook||0.66||2400||1900||Publishing|
|how to publish ebooks||0.6||390||210||Publishing|
|how to publish online||0.4||1300||1300||Publishing|
|online publishing book||0.2||3600||2900||Publishing|
|online publishing business||0.33||-1||260||Publishing|
|online marketing roi||0.8||260||260||ROI|
|return on marketing investment||0.8||1900||2900||ROI|
|roi calculator marketing||0||480||320||ROI|
|balanced scorecard metrics||0.73||1000||1000||ROI|
|best practices metrics||0.2||-1||480||ROI|
|google analytics training||0.8||590||1600||ROI|
|how to measure process||0||-1||320||ROI|
|how to measure success||0.6||1600||1900||ROI|
|key performance indicators metrics||0.33||-1||210||ROI|
|measuring social media||0.6||-1||590||ROI|
|performance management kpi||0.33||-1||590||ROI|
|performance management metrics||0.73||880||880||ROI|
|performance measurement metrics||0.53||880||880||ROI|
|web marketing metrics||0.46||210||91||ROI|
|improve search engine ranking||1||9900||6600||Search|
|search engine consultant||0.93||22200||9900||Search|
|search engine keyword||1||135000||33100||Search|
|search engine marketing consultants||1||1300||1000||Search|
|search engine marketing pro||0.93||720||480||Search|
|search engine optimisation expert||0.8||720||720||Search|
|search engine optimisation seo||0.93||2900||2400||Search|
|search engine optimisation training||0.86||390||1000||Search|
|search engine optimization seo||1||74000||33100||Search|
|search engine optimization techniques||1||2900||2900||Search|
|search engine optimization tips||1||22200||6600||Search|
|search engine optimization tools||1||4400||5400||Search|
|search engine optimizing||1||3600||4400||Search|
|search engine position||1||18100||9900||Search|
|search engine positioning||1||60500||33100||Search|
|search engine secrets||1||4400||2900||Search|
|search engine strategies||1||8100||8100||Search|
|search engine techniques||0.86||4400||4400||Search|
|seo optimization tips||0.66||-1||390||Search|
|seo web design||1||18100||33100||Search|
|b2b social media||0.53||-1||1000||Social Media|
|social media for business||0.53||-1||880||Social Media|
|social media how to||0.53||-1||1300||Social Media|
|social media marketing||1||-1||40500||Social Media|
|social media marketing plan||0.66||-1||390||Social Media|
|social media marketing strategy||0.73||-1||480||Social Media|
|social media metrics||0.46||-1||720||Social Media|
|social media planning||0.46||-1||210||Social Media|
|social media strategist||0.4||-1||480||Social Media|
|social media strategy||0.86||-1||3600||Social Media|
|social media tools||0.73||-1||2900||Social Media|
|successful social media||0.46||-1||320||Social Media|
|affordable webdesign||0.8||260||320||Web Design|
|budget web design||0.86||2400||1600||Web Design|
|company webdesign||0.66||1600||3600||Web Design|
|corporate web development||1||1900||1300||Web Design|
|corporate web site development||0.86||880||480||Web Design|
|designing web sites||0.93||1900||2400||Web Design|
|development web design||0.53||90500||49500||Web Design|
|effective website design||0.93||720||1000||Web Design|
|good web site design||1||1900||1000||Web Design|
|graphic webdesign||0.53||210||590||Web Design|
|internet website design||1||5400||14800||Web Design|
|templates web design||0.73||33100||40500||Web Design|
|tools web design||0.4||14800||18100||Web Design|
|web design basics||0.86||2400||1900||Web Design|
|web design best practice||0.46||720||720||Web Design|
|web design best practices||0.6||1600||1300||Web Design|
|web design checklist||0.46||480||720||Web Design|
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General Marketing and Social Media Blogs
- Seth’s Blog. http://sethgodin.typepad.com/.
- Clay Shirky Blog. http://www.shirky.com/weblog/.
- Mashable. http://mashable.com/.
General Marketing Books
- Clay Shirky. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations. New York: The Penguin Press, 2008.
- Kelly Mooney and Nita Rollins. The Open Brand. California: New Riders, 2008.
- Any of Seth Godin’s books.
Marketing Writing Resources
- Chip and Dan Heath. Made to Stick. Random House: New York, 2007.
- Copyblogger. www.copyblogger.com/.
Business Development Resources
- 7 Sentence Marketing Plan. http://www.guerrillaconsulting.com/7-sentence-marketing-plan.html.
- Groundswell Customer Profile Tool. http://www.forrester.com/Groundswell/profile_tool.html.
Online Publishing Resource
- Mequoda. http://www.mequoda.com/.
- Google Alerts. www.google.com/alerts.
- Advanced Twitter Search. http://search.twitter.com/advanced.
- Google Insight’s for Search. http://www.google.com/insights/search/.
- Google External Keyword Tool. https://adwords.google.com.au/select/KeywordToolExternal.
Twitter Management and Metrics Tool
- Hootsuite. http://hootsuite.com/.
- Jason Burby and Shane Atchison. Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to Make Smart Business Decisions. New York: Sybex, 2007.
- Avinash Kaushik. Web Analytics: An Hour a Day. Sybex: New York, 2007.
- Google Conversion University. http://www.google.com/support/conversionuniversity/.
Anderson, Chris. Free: The Future of Radical Price. Toronto: HarperCollins, 2009.
———. The Long Tail. New York: Hyperion, 2008.
Arthur Attwell Blog. http://arthurattwell.com/.
B2B Online, http://www.btobonline.com/.
Barefoot, Darren and Julie Szabo. Friends with Benefits: Online Marketing with Blogs, Facebook, Youtube, and More. San Francisco: No Starch Press, 2009.
Blanchard, Oliver. “The Basics of Social Media ROI,” Social Fresh Conference, presented August 24, 2009, http://www.slideshare.net/thebrandbuilder/olivier-blanchard-basics-of-social-media-roi.
Boxcar Marketing. http://www.boxcarmarketing.com/.
Boxcar Marketing Blog, The. http://www.boxcarmarketing.com/blog/.
Burby, Jason and Shane Atchison. Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to Make Smart Business Decisions. New York: Sybex, 2007.
Capulet Communications. http://www.capulet.com/.
Chris Brogan Blog. http://www.chrisbrogan.com/.
Clay Shirky Blog. http://www.shirky.com/weblog/.
Cluetrain Manifesto. “95 Theses.”http://www.cluetrain.com/#manifesto.
Common Craft. http://www.commoncraft.com/.
Dell’s Social Media for Small Business http://www.facebook.com/dellsocialmedia.
Eisenberg, Bryan, Chris Goward and Raquel Hirsch “Activate the 10 Steps to a Higher Conversion Rate,” Webinar, presented June 2, 2010.
Friends With Benefits. http://www.friendswithbenefitsbook.com/.
Groundswell: How People With Social Technologies Are Changing Everything, http://forrester.typepad.com/groundswell/.
Godin, Seth. “Seth Godin on the Tribes We Lead.” Video on TED.com. Posted February 2009. http://www.ted.com/talks/seth_godin_on_the_tribes_we_lead.html.
Google Investor Relations. 2010 Financial Tables. http://investor.google.com/financial/tables.html.
Guerrilla Consulting. “The 7-Sentence Marketing Plan Sample.” http://www.guerrillaconsulting.com/7-sentence-marketing-plan.html.
Internet Marketing Conference, http://www.internetmarketingconference.com/.
Jaffe, Joseph. Life After the 30-Second Spot: Energize Your Brand With a Bold Mix of Alternatives to Traditional Advertising. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. Books24x7. http://common.books24x7.com/book/id_13962/book.asp.
Joel, Mitch. Six Pixels of Separation. New York: Business Plus, 2009.
Mooney, Kelly and Nita Rollins. The Open Brand. California: New Riders, 2008.
MoreVisibility Webinars, http://www.morevisibility.com/webinars/.
My Yoga Online. http://www.myyogaonline.com/.
Namaste Publishing. http://www.namastepublishing.com/.
Nash, Richard. “Publishing 3.0: Moving from Gatekeeping to Partnerships,” BookNet Canada Technology Forum. March 25, 2010. http://booknetcanada.ca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=567&Itemid=534.
Nielsen Wire, http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire.
Queen’s University Executive Development Marketing Program, http://business.queensu.ca/execdev/programs/marketing.php.
Search and Social Media Report (UK: IAB and Microsoft Advertising, March 2010), http://advertising.microsoft.com/uk/search-social-media-report.
Seth’s Blog. http://sethgodin.typepad.com/.
Shirky, Clay. “Clay Shirky On New Book Here Comes Everybody.” Video on YouTube. Posted March 5, 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A_0FgRKsqqU.
———. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations. New York: The Penguin Press, 2008.
Simon Fraser University Executive MBA, http://business.sfu.ca/emba/.
Six Pixels of Separation, http://www.twistimage.com/blog/.
Technuim Blog. http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/.
TOMS Shoes. “Our Movement.” http://www.toms.com/our-movement/.
Tools of Change for Publishing, http://toc.oreilly.com/.
Trottier, Monique. “ACP Children’s Committee Presentation.” Presentation at Associate of Canadian Publishers Children’s Committee, Toronto, September 18, 2008.
———. “LPG Presentation at Sales Conference.” Presentation at Literary Press Group, Toronto, December 7, 2007.
———. “Online Markets and Marketing.” Lecture at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, March 6, 2009.
———. “Websites: Investment or Expense?” Presentation at Book Expo Canada, Toronto, June 13, 2008.
Twitter Blog. http://blog.twitter.com/.
Vocus User’s Conference 2009, http://www.vocus.com/uc2009/prweb.html.
Wodtke, Christina and Austin Govella. Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web Second Edition. California: New Riders Press, 2009.
1 Clay Shirky, “Why Small Payments Won’t Save Publishers,” The Clay Shirky Blog, posted February 9, 2009, http://www.shirky.com/weblog/2009/02/why-small-payments-wont-save-publishers/. RETURN
2 Chris Anderson, The Long Tail (New York: Hyperion, 2008), 52. RETURN
3 Ibid., 53. RETURN
4 Ibid., 55-56. RETURN
5 Chris Anderson, The Long Tail (New York: Hyperion, 2008), 107. RETURN
6 Ibid., 56. RETURN
7 Seth Godin, “Seth Godin on the Tribes We Lead,” Video on TED.com, February 2009, http://www.ted.com/talks/seth_godin_on_the_tribes_we_lead.html. RETURN
8 Chris Anderson, The Long Tail (New York: Hyperion, 2008),117. RETURN
9 Ibid.,119. RETURN
10 Chris Anderson, The Long Tail (New York: Hyperion, 2008), 52. RETURN
11 Kevin Kelly, “Better Than Free,” The Technuim Blog, posted January 31, 2008, http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/01/better_than_fre.php. RETURN
12 Chris Anderson, Free: The Future of a Radical Price (Toronto: HarperCollins,2009), 54. RETURN
13 Ibid., 231. RETURN
14 Chris Anderson, Free: The Future of a Radical Price (Toronto: HarperCollins,2009), 181. RETURN
15 Google Investor Relations, 2010 Financial Tables, http://investor.google.com/financial/tables.html. RETURN
16Seth Godin, “Malcom is Wrong,” Seth’s Blog, posted June 30, 2009, http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2009/06/malcolm-is-wrong.html. RETURN
17Chris Brogan, “My Worry Reduction Buttons- Affiliate Marketing,” The Chris Brogan Blog, posted May 10, 2010, http://www.chrisbrogan.com/my-worry-reduction-buttons-affiliate-marketing/. RETURN
18 Chris Anderson, Free: The Future of a Radical Price (Toronto: HarperCollins,2009), 165. RETURN
19Seth Godin, “Malcom is Wrong,” Seth’s Blog, posted June 30, 2009, http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2009/06/malcolm-is-wrong.html. RETURN
20Chris Anderson, Free: The Future of a Radical Price (Toronto: HarperCollins,2009), 69-70. RETURN
21 Kelly Mooney and Nita Rollins, The Open Brand (California: New Riders, 2008), 74. RETURN
22 The Cluetrain Manifesto, “95 Theses,”http://www.cluetrain.com/#manifesto. RETURN
23Monique Trottier, “ACP Children’s Committee Presentation,” (presented at the Associate of Canadian Publishers Children’s Committee, Toronto, September 18, 2008). RETURN
24 “Led by Facebook, Twitter, Global Time Spent on Social Media Sites up 82% Year over Year,” Nielsen Wire, posted January 22, 2010, http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/global/led-by-facebook-twitter-global-time-spent-on-social-media-sites-up-82-year-over-year/. RETURN
25 Clay Shirky, “Clay Shirky On New Book Here Comes Everybody,” Video on YouTube, posted March 5, 2008, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A_0FgRKsqqU. RETURN
26 Twitter Blog, “Measuring Tweets,” February 22, 2010, http://blog.twitter.com/2010/02/measuring-tweets.html. RETURN
27Jennifer Van Grove, “Red Cross Raises $5,000,000+ for Haiti Through Text Message Campaign,” Mashable, posted January 13, 2010, http://mashable.com/2010/01/13/haiti-red-cross-donations/ and American Red Cross, Twitter, posted January 13, 2010, http://twitter.com/RedCross/statuses/7763978217. RETURN
28 Seth Godin, “Seth Godin on the Tribes We Lead,” Video on TED.com, February 2009, http://www.ted.com/talks/seth_godin_on_the_tribes_we_lead.html. RETURN
29 Richard Nash, “Publishing 3.0: Moving from Gatekeeping to Partnership,” BookNet Canada Technology Forum, March 25, 2010, http://www.booknetcanada.ca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=567&Itemid=534. RETURN
30 Namaste Publishing, http://www.namastepublishing.com/. RETURN
31 “Mequoda Media Pyramid”, Mequoda, http://www.mequoda.com/glossary/l-o/mequoda-media-pyramid/. RETURN
32 “Who is Bizah?” Namaste Publishing, http://www.namastepublishing.com/blog/bizah/about. RETURN
33 Monique Trottier, “Websites: Investment or Expense?” (presentation at Book Expo Canada, Toronto, June 13, 2008). RETURN
34 Ibid. RETURN
35 TOMS Shoes, “Our Movement,” http://www.toms.com/our-movement/. RETURN
36 Mitch Joel, Six Pixels of Separation (New York: Business Plus, 2009), 21. RETURN
37 Search and Social Media Report (UK: IAB and Microsoft Advertising, March 2010), 13, http://advertising.microsoft.com/uk/search-social-media-report. RETURN
38Monique Trottier popularized this phrase. RETURN
39 Kelly Mooney and Nita Rollins, The Open Brand (California: New Riders, 2008), 83. RETURN
40 Susan Fournier and Lara Lee, “Getting Brand Communities Right”. Harvard Business Review (April 2009). RETURN
41 Mitch Joel, “Selling 2.0 – Let The Customer Do The Communicating,” Six Pixels of Separation, posted September 24, 2008, http://www.twistimage.com/blog/archives/selling-20—let-the-customer-do-the-communicating/. RETURN
42 Mitch Joel, Six Pixels of Separation (New York: Business Plus, 2009), 167. RETURN
43 Samuel Axon, “BP Buys Top Google Result For ‘Oil Spill’,” Mashable, posted June 8, 2010, http://mashable.com/2010/06/08/bp-oil-spill-google/. RETURN
44 Seth Godin, “Cannibalism and Spam,” Seth’s Blog, posted April 14, 2010, http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2010/04/cannibailsm-and-spam.html. RETURN
45 Neil M. Rosen, “What is the most effective use of e-mail to drive revenue and loyalty?” B2B Online, posted June 17, 2010. http://www.btobonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100617/FREE/100619919/1008/EMAIL#seenit. RETURN
46 “Email Marketing Benchmarks for Small Business,” MailChimp, http://www.mailchimp.com/articles/email_marketing_benchmarks_for_small_business/. RETURN
47 Kelly Mooney and Nita Rollins, The Open Brand (California: New Riders, 2008), 187. RETURN
48Ibid., 85. RETURN
49 Kelly Mooney and Nita Rollins, The Open Brand (California: New Riders, 2008), 84. RETURN
50 Arthur Attwell, “Seven Digital-Publishing Tips for Small Publishers,” The Arthur Attwell Blog, posted April 1, 2010, http://arthurattwell.com/technology/83-seven-digital-publishing-tips-for-small-publishers. RETURN
51 Clay Shirky, “The Collapse of Complex Business Models,” The Clay Shirky Blog, posted April 1 2010, http://www.shirky.com/weblog/2010/04/the-collapse-of-complex-business-models/. RETURN
52 Clay Shirky, “The Collapse of Complex Business Models,” The Clay Shirky Blog, posted April 1 2010, http://www.shirky.com/weblog/2010/04/the-collapse-of-complex-business-models/. RETURN
53 Guerrilla Consulting, “The 7-Sentence Marketing Plan Sample,” http://www.guerrillaconsulting.com/7-sentence-marketing-plan.html. RETURN
54 Charlene Li,“Forrester’s New Social Technographics Report,” Groundswell: How People With Social Technologies Are Changing Everything, posted April 23, 2007, http://forrester.typepad.com/groundswell/2007/04/forresters_new_.html. RETURN
55 Monique, Trottier, “LPG Presentation at Sales Conference,” (presentation at Literary Press Group, Toronto, December 7, 2007). RETURN
56 Christina Wodtke and Austin Govella, Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web Second Edition, (California: New Riders Press, 2009), 130. RETURN
57 The following is built on ideas from Christina Wodtke and Austin Govella, Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web Second Edition, (California: New Riders Press, 2009). RETURN
58 Monique, Trottier, “Websites: Investment or Expense?” (presentation at Book Expo Canada, Toronto, June 13, 2008). RETURN
59Jason Burby and Shane Atchison, Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to Make Smart Business Decisions, (Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc, 2007), 9. RETURN
60 Many of the ideas for this section are taken from from a webinar: Bryan Eisenberg, Chris Goward and Raquel Hirsch “Activate the 10 Steps to a Higher Conversion Rate,” Webinar, presented June 2, 2010. RETURN
61 Bryan Eisenberg, Chris Goward and Raquel Hirsch “Active the 10 Steps to a Higher Conversion Rate,” Webinar, presented June 2, 2010. RETURN
62 Oliver Blanchard, “The Basics of Social Media ROI,” Social Fresh Conference, presented August 24, 2009, http://www.slideshare.net/thebrandbuilder/olivier-blanchard-basics-of-social-media-roi. RETURN
63 Jason Burby and Shane Atchison, Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to Make Smart Business Decisions, (Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc, 2007), 95. RETURN
64 Capulet Communications, http://www.capulet.com/. RETURN
65 Darren Barefoot, in phone discussion with the author, September 14, 2009. RETURN
66Darren Barefoot, “Our Pitch to Some Top Bloggers,” Friends with Benefits, posted December 18, 2007, http://www.friendswithbenefitsbook.com/2007/12/18/our-pitch-to-some-top-bloggers/ and Darren Barefoot, in phone discussion with the author, September 14, 2009. RETURN
67 Darren Barefoot, “eBook Conversion Rates, YouTube and the Cobbler’s Children,” Friends with Benefits, February 11, 2009 http://www.friendswithbenefitsbook.com/2009/02/11/ebook-conversion-rates-youtube-and-the-cobblers-children/. RETURN
68 Darren Barefoot, in phone discussion with the author, September 14, 2009. RETURN
69 Ibid. RETURN
70 Ibid. RETURN
71 Boxcar Marketing, http://www.boxcarmarketing.com/. RETURN
72 Many of Boxcar Marketing’s blog readers, Underwire subscribers, Twitter followers and members of the technology community are also following Trottier on SoMisGuided’s Twitter stream. 1,100 audience members is a low estimate but ensures that I am not including duplicate people. RETURN
73Common Craft, http://www.commoncraft.com/. RETURN
74Dell’s Social Media for Small Business http://www.facebook.com/dellsocialmedia. RETURN
76 Mequoda, http://www.mequoda.com/. RETURN
77 MarketingProfs, http://www.marketingprofs.com/. RETURN
78 Queen’s University Executive Development Marketing Program, http://business.queensu.ca/execdev/programs/marketing.php. RETURN
79 MarketingProfs Pro Members, http://www.marketingprofs.com/members/. RETURN
80 Common Craft, “How to Buy Our Videos,” http://www.commoncraft.com/how/how-to-buy and “Our Story,” http://www.commoncraft.com/about/story. RETURN
81 MoreVisibility Webinars, http://www.morevisibility.com/webinars/. RETURN
82 Vocus User’s Conference 2009, http://www.vocus.com/uc2009/prweb.html. RETURN
83 Internet Marketing Conference, http://www.internetmarketingconference.com/. RETURN
84Simon Fraser University Executive MBA, http://business.sfu.ca/emba/. RETURN
85 See Appendix A. RETURN
86See Appendix B. RETURN
87 Underwire is a monthly newsletter sent out by Boxcar Marketing that offers social media tips, technical how-tos, and internet marketing advice. http://www.boxcarmarketing.com/underwire/. RETURN
88 Digital Chalk, http://www.digitalchalk.com/. RETURN
89 CubeCart, http://www.cubecart.com/. RETURN
90 E-junkie, http://www.e-junkie.com/. RETURN
91Paul Gillin, “B-to-b marketers still looking for return on tweets, ” B2B Online, posted June 14, 2010, http://www.btobonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100614/FREE/306149964/1108/FREE#seenit. RETURN
92 AdHack, http://adhack.com/. RETURN
93Richard Nash, “Publishing 3.0: Moving from Gatekeeping to Partnership,” BookNet Canada Technology Forum, March 25, 2010, http://www.booknetcanada.ca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=567&Itemid=53 and James Turner, “What Does Publishing 2.0 Look Like? Richard Nash Knows,” Tools of Change for Publishing, posted February 11, 2010 http://toc.oreilly.com/2010/02/what-does-publishing-20-look-l.html. RETURN
94 $110 an hour is our preferred client rate, as well as a general rate in the industry if we decide to outsource. RETURN
95Bryan Eisenberg talks argues that the average online conversion rate is 2-3% in “The Average Conversion Rate: Is It a Myth?” ClickZ.com, posted February 1, 2008, http://www.clickz.com/3628276. Bluecorona also quotes a 2-3% conversion rate in “What is the Average Website Conversion Rate?” Bluecorona, posted June 13, 2010, http://bluecorona.wordpress.com/2010/06/13/what-is-the-average-website-conversion-rate/. According to Fireclick, the global conversion rate for the last two weeks in June 2010 was 2.2% and 1.7%, Fireclick, http://index.fireclick.com/, retrieved July 5, 2010. RETURN